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You are here You are here: Home Library 000-General Intervention Theory Essentials
  Intervention Theory Essentials     From: Nexus Magazine and dcrain.zftp
The Absurdities of Dogma
it book cover 240

In 1905, a 25-year-old patent clerk named Albert Einstein demolished the 200-year-old certainty that Isaac Newton knew all there was to know about basic physics.

  • In a technical paper only a few pages long, Einstein sent a huge part of his current "reality" to history's dustbin, where it found good company with thousands of other discards large and small.
  • In 1905, though, Newton's discard was about as large as the bin would hold.

Now another grand old "certainty" hovers over history's dustbin, and it seems only a matter of time before some new Einstein writes the few (or many) pages that will bring it down and relegate it to history.

  • And, as was the case in 1905, every "expert" in the world laughs heartily at any suggestion that their certainty could be struck down.
  • Yet if facts are any yardstick — which should always be the case, but frequently isn't
    — Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is moving towards extinction.

In 1905, a 25-year-old patent clerk named Albert Einstein demolished the 200-year-old certainty that Isaac Newton knew all there was to know about basic physics.

  • In a technical paper only a few pages long, Einstein sent a huge part of his current "reality" to history's dustbin, where it found good company with thousands of other discards large and small.
  • In 1905, though, Newton's discard was about as large as the bin would hold.

Please note this: not everyone who challenges evolution is automatically a Creationist. Darwinists love to tar all opponents with that brush because so much of Creationist dogma is absurd. Creationists mulishly exclude themselves from serious consideration by refusing to give up fatally flawed parts of their argument, such as the literal interpretation of "six days of creation". Of course, some have tried to take a more reasonable stance, but those few can't be heard over the ranting of the many who refuse.

Recently a new group has entered the fray, much better educated than typical Creationists. This group has devised a theory called "Intelligent Design", which has a wealth of scientifically established facts on its side. The ID-ers, though, give away their Creationist roots by insisting that because life at its most basic level is so incredibly and irreducibly complex, it could never have simply "come into being" as Darwinists insist.

Despicable and Dreadful

Actually, the "life somehow assembled itself out of organic molecules" dogma is every bit as absurd as the "everything was created in six days" dogma, which the ID-ers understand and exploit. But they also suggest that everything came into existence at the hands of God (by whatever name) or "by means of outside intervention", which makes clear how they're betting. "Outside intervention" is a transparent euphemism for "You Know What" (with apologies to J. K. Rowling) In Rowling's "Harry Potter" books, the arch villain is so despicable and dreadful, his name should not even be uttered; thus he is referred to as "You Know Who".

Similarly, the very idea that humans might have been created by extraterrestrials is so despicable and dreadful to mainstream science and religion that no mention of it should be uttered; thus the author refers to it as "You Know What". To Darwinists, Creationists and ID-ers alike, creation at the hands of You Know What is the most absurd suggestion of all. Yet it can be shown that You Know What has the widest array of facts on its side and has the best chance of being proved correct in the end.

Virtually every scientist worth their doctorate will insist that somehow, some way, a form of evolution is at the heart of all life forms and processes on Earth. By "evolution", they mean the entire panoply of possible interpretations that might explain how, over vast stretches of time, simple organisms can and do transform themselves into more complex organisms. That broad definition gives science as a whole a great deal of room to bob and weave its way towards the truth about evolution, which ostensibly is its goal. However, among individual scientists that same broadness of coverage means nobody has a "lock" on the truth, which opens them up to a withering array of internecine squabbles.

In Darwin's case, those squabbles were initially muted. Rightly or wrongly, his theory served a much higher purpose than merely challenging the way science thought about life's processes. It provided something every scientist desperately needed: a strong counter to the intellectual nonsense pouring from pulpits in every church, synagogue and mosque in the world.

Since well before Charles Darwin was born, men of science knew full well that God did not create the Earth or anything else in the universe in six literal days. But to assert that publicly invited the same kind of censure that erupts today onto anyone who dares to challenge evolution openly. Dogma is dogma in any generation.

No clear-cut transitional species

Darwin's honeymoon with his scientific peers was relatively brief. It lasted only as long as they needed to understand that all he had really provided was the outline of a forest of an idea, one that only in broad terms seemed to account for life's stunningly wide array. His forest lacked enough verifiable trees.

Even so, once the overarching concept was crystallized as "natural selection", the term "survival of the fittest" was coined to explain it to laymen. When the majority of the public became convinced that evolution was a legitimate alternative to Creationism, the scientific gloves came off. In-fighting became widespread regarding the trees that made up Darwin's forest.

Over time, scientists parsed Darwin's original forest into more different trees than he could ever have imagined. That parsing has been wide and deep, and it has taken down countless trees at the hands of scientists themselves. But despite such thinning, the forest remains upright and intact. Somehow, some way, there is a completely natural force at work governing all aspects of the flow and change of life on Earth. That is the scientific mantra, which is chanted religiously to counter every Creationist — and now Intelligent Design — challenge to one or more of the rotten trees that frequently become obvious.

Even Darwin realized the data of his era did not provide clear-cut evidence that his theory was correct. Especially troubling was the absence of "transitional species" in the fossil record. Those were needed to prove that, over vast amounts of time, species did in fact gradually transform into other, "higher" species.

So right out of the chute, the theory of evolution was on the defensive regarding one of its cornerstones, and more than 140 years later there are still no clear-cut transitional species apparent in the fossil record.

Because this is the most vulnerable part of Darwin's theory, Creationists attack it relentlessly, which has forced scientists periodically to put forth a series of candidates to try to take the heat off. Unfortunately for them, in every case those "missing links" have been shown to be outright fakes and frauds. An excellent account is found in Icons of Evolution by Jonathan Wells (Regnery, 2000). But scientists are not deterred by such exposure of their shenanigans. They feel justified because, they insist, not enough time has passed for them to find what they need in a grossly incomplete fossil record.

The truth is that some lengthy fossil timelines are missing, but many more are well accounted for. Those have been thoroughly examined in the past 140-plus years, to no avail. In any other occupation, a 140-year-long trek up a blind alley would indicate a wrong approach has been taken. But not to scientists.

They blithely continue forward, convinced of the absolute rightness of their mission and confident their fabled missing link will be found beneath the next overturned rock. Sooner or later, they believe, one of their members will uncover it, so they all work in harmonious concert towards that common goal. Individually, though, it's every man and woman for themselves.

Dedication

To Daniel Shechtman, Ph.D. Winner of the 2011 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

In 1982, Dr. Shechtman created a crystal with atoms that formed a five-sided pattern that did not repeat itself. He defied a “received wisdom” in chemistry that they must create “repetitious” patterns such as triangles, squares or hexagons.

Shechtman’s peers ridiculed his discovery of what has come to be known as quasi-crystals. Prior Nobel laureate Linus Pauling castigated him by insisting: “There is no such thing as quasi-crystals, only quasi-scientists.”

After years of battling the dogma of ignorance, Shechtman’s efforts finally forced his peers to reconsider the fundamental nature of matter.

This is how it always is with science. Someone discovers a new concept, and first it is ignored, then it is ridiculed, and finally it is self-evident

Preface

This eBook is designed to explain the essential aspects of Intervention Theory that anyone new to it, or interested in learning more about it, will need to know. It is grounded in solid, reliable academic research, though it is not footnoted or annotated because there is no point in doing so.

Statements made by alternative researchers like me are automatically contradicted by scientists insisting we are not simply wrong, but stupidly wrong. They further insist we have no right to challenge their cherished beliefs because our only “credentials” are an unwarranted faith in our ability to discern truth from nonsense.

[This doesn’t refer to all scientists. Some still willingly risk reputation and security to explore topics that defy dogma. However, they are few.]

Every point I discuss is supported by facts in available research, but I am often criticized by skeptics. Why? Because the issues I discuss are long-lived sacred cows to mainstream sciences.

They protect their herd with admirable tenacity, as I would if I had somehow joined their ranks.

Looking back, I’m delighted I managed to find a different herd to look after, because I’m sure those areas of study will lead to our true future.

Also, this eBook contains a small amount of repetition. The best way to learn anything, to make it stick in memory like velcro, is to use a technique known as Programmed Learning.

Years ago, school workbooks had sentences containing blank segments to be filled in by students. They were intermittently repetitive, which subtly enhanced memory. Workbooks are no longer used as much, but intermittent repetition remains a useful learning tool.

This eBook’s purpose is to introduce readers to highly controversial concepts they should easily absorb and, more importantly, recall with some detail for later discussion and, if needed, debate with friends and family not yet familiar with the basic evidence supporting Intervention Theory.

Tweedledum and Tweedledee

Plants and animals evolve, eh? Alright, how do they evolve?

  • By gradual but constant changes, influenced by adaptive pressures in their environment that cause physical modifications to persist if they are advantageous.

Can you specify the kind of gradual change you're referring to?

  • In any population of plants or animals, over time, random genetic mutations will occur. Most will be detrimental, some will have a neutral effect and some will confer a selective advantage, however small or seemingly inconsequential it might appear.

Really? But wouldn't the overall population have a gene pool deep enough to absorb and dilute even a large change? Wouldn't a small change rapidly disappear?

  • Well, yes, it probably would. But not in an isolated segment of the overall population. An isolated group would have a much shallower gene pool, so positive mutations would stand a much better chance of establishing a permanent place in it.

Really? What if that positive mutation gets established in the isolated group, then somehow the isolated group gets back together with the main population? Poof! The mutation will be absorbed and disappear.

  • Well, maybe. So let's make sure the isolated population can't get back with the main group until crossbreeding is no longer possible.

How would you do that?

  • Put a mountain range between them, something impossible to cross. If it's impossible to cross, how did the isolated group get there in the first place?

If you're asking me just how isolated is isolated, let me ask you one. What kind of mutations were you talking about being absorbed?

  • Small, absolutely random changes in base pairs at the gene level.

Really? Why not at the chromosome level? Wouldn't change at the base pair level be entirely too small to create any significant change? Wouldn't a mutation almost have to be at the chromosome level to be noticeable?

  • Who says? Change at that level would probably be too much, something the organism couldn't tolerate. Maybe we're putting too much emphasis on mutations.

Right! What about environmental pressures? What if a species suddenly found itself having to survive in a significantly changed environment?

  • One where its members must adapt to the new circumstances or die out?

Exactly! How would they adapt? Could they just will themselves to grow thicker fur or stronger muscles or larger size?

  • That sounds like mutations have to play a part.

Mutations, eh? All right, how do they play a part?


This game of intellectual thrust and parry goes on constantly at levels of minutiae that boggle an average mind.

  • Traditional Darwinists are one-upped by neo-Darwinists at every turn.

  • Quantum evolutionists refashion the work of those who support the theory of peripheral isolates.

  • Mathematicians model mutation rates and selective forces, which biologists do not trust.

  • Geneticists have little use for paleontologists, who return the favor in spades (pun intended).

  • Cytogenetics labours to find a niche alongside genetics proper.

  • Population geneticists utilize mathematical models that challenge paleontologists and systematists.

  • Sociobiologists and evolutionary psychologists struggle to make room for their ideas.

  • All perform a cerebral dance of elegant form and exquisite symmetry.

Their dance is, ironically, evolution writ large throughout science as a process. New bits of data are put forth to a peer group.

The new data are discussed, written about, criticized, written about again, criticized some more. This is gradualism at work, shaping, reshaping and reshaping again if necessary until the new data can comfortably fit into the current paradigm in any field, whatever it is. This is necessary to make it conform as closely as possible to every concerned scientist's current way of thinking. To do it any other way is to invite prompt rejection under a fusillade of withering criticism.

This system of excruciating "peer review" is how independent thinkers among scientists have always been kept in line. Darwin was an outsider until he barged into the club by sheer, overpowering brilliance. Patent clerk Einstein did the same. On the other hand, Alfred Wegener was the German meteorologist who figured out plate tectonics in 1915. Because he dared to bruise the egos of "authorities" outside his own field, he saw his brilliant discovery buried under spiteful criticism that held it down for 50 years. Every scientist in the game knows how it is played, and very few dare to challenge its rules.

The restrictions on scientists are severe, but for a very good reason. They work at the leading edges of knowledge, from where the view can be anything from confusing to downright terrifying. Among those who study the processes of life on Earth, they must cope with the knowledge that a surprising number of species have no business being here. In some cases, they can't even be here. Yet they are, for better or worse, and those worst-case examples must be hidden or at least obscured from the general public. But no matter how often facts are twisted, data are concealed or reality is denied, the truth is out there.

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The Presumed Celestial Origin

Creationists of all kinds … God did it!”

Darwinists of all stripes … It just happened — poof! — like magic!”

Outside InterventionThey did it!”

This is how the Bible explains it …

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

Yet, to account for all the magnificence that has come into existence in our universe since then, that Word must have been on the scale of:

S.u.p.e.r.c.a.l.i.f.r.a.g.i.l.i.s.t.i.c.e.x.p.e.a.l.i.d.o.c.i.o.u.s

Creationists of all kinds, which includes the smarter, more reasonable, and typically well-credentialed Intelligent Design  proponents, insist the only answer to questions about the origins of life or humans is: “God did it!”

Darwinists of all stripes insist with equal zeal that their pet theory of evolution best explains how life originated. Their 150-year-old dogma asserts: “It just happened — poof! — like magic!”

After the magic moment when life kick-started itself into existence, it initiated a self-contained and imperceptibly slow-but-steady growth into ever more complex forms, until those reached the apex of an arduous climb — humanity.

In contrast, Interventionists like me anchor our search for origins on evidence rather than faith, on logic rather than magic. We don’t think that God did it, or that life spontaneously generated.

For us, evidence and logic point to the same “outside intervention” Intelligent Designers see. However, where they feel the only outside source of intervention must be God (whom they are careful to not mention by name), we suggest another, bolder explanation: “They did it!”

Who are “They”?

The currently favored term is Aliens — non-human, non-Earth-based entities.

Of course, aliens raises the hackles and blood pressure of science, government, and religion, so to calm them I will later provide a different, less threatening term. That new term describes entities who have created and distributed, then overseen and managed, life’s myriad forms.

Mainstream scientists say extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. [In this eBook I will forego the common jibe, Lamestream, out of respect for its ideals rather than its practices.]

Clearly, the Intervention Theory makes several super-extraordinary claims, so we need a great deal of extraordinary evidence. Do we have it?

This eBook is meant to answer those questions with facts, data and evidence that in the court of public opinion should qualify as extraordinary.

That human life emerged from primitive haircovered hominoids (upright walking apes) after human-like entities (aliens or gods, with a small “g”) intervened genetically (with test tubes) to create a new hybrid being (humans) with genes from themselves and the primitive hominoids.

The Real Celestial Origin
big bang 240

Cosmologists and astrophysicists (collectively I’ll call them cosmologists) believe the universe began with a colossal Big Bang. The amusing poster here summarizes their grandiose theory.

Obviously, that theory needs some work, but the cosmologists are stuck with it because it is based on theories and “received wisdom” they see as unassailable, with all of it founded on the idea that gravity is the inherent physical force that binds together everything in the universe.

This received wisdom came down to them from Isaac Newton, who in 1687 first grappled with trying to figure out gravity and how it functions not only on the Earth, but in our solar system as a whole, and in the infinite universe beyond.

In the early 1900s, Albert Einstein added to the gravitational riddle cosmology confronted when he wove electromagnetism into the mix. But no matter how hard cosmologists tried, they nor Einstein could make the gravity math add up.

miracle occurs 240

It was clear that something was missing in the gravity-based formulas. To make them work, they had to mimic a classic S. Harris cartoon:

Gravity-based math was woefully inadequate to explain the real forces at work in the universe. How to solve this conundrum? Easy …. cheat! Cosmologists realized they could add abstract “fudge factors” to provide the miracles their formulas required — as many as they needed!

funny energy 240

To make gravity-based math work as it should, cartoonish concoctions were added to the faulty equations. Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Black Holes and, yes, even the Big Bang itself came from their tinkering with reality to make it fit what they needed it to be rather than what it is.

Calling these enormities “fudge factors” is an exercise in chutzpa. Gravity-based math says 96%* of the universe is missing! Not there! [*Different sources give different percentages.]

dark energy 240

Dark Energy, Dark Matter, and Black Holes had to be fabricated to supplement a Big Bang and obscure gargantuan gaps in cosmic reality.

What is the real problem here? What are they so desperate to avoid having to confront? The bottom line is, indeed, math … the math that simply won’t add up for them the way it must for Newton and Einstein to remain relevant.

newton einstein 240

Imagine giving up Newton and Einstein. Doing that would decimate everything cosmology was structured around and built upon. It would force every “expert” back to classrooms to start over. It would mean rewriting all of their textbooks!

Who in their right mind would want a disaster like that to happen during their watch? So, they protect gravity with religious zeal, even though it is clear to anyone who studies the problem to any depth that they are riding a lame horse.

Here is the number that lames their horse: 1039 (read: 10 to the power of 39). It is 10 followed by 39 zeroes. It is a mind-boggling number. So, what is it? What does it represent? It expresses the power of electricity compared to gravity.

As a force, electricity is 39 orders of magnitude stronger than gravity!!! That is one thousand billion billion billion billion times stronger!

Cosmologists should have ditched gravity as soon as they understood that imposing number. Unfortunately, they made the decision to keep doing what they had always done rather than forging into unfamiliar territories where their ignorance would be obvious and embarrassing as they learned that new turf. They decided to stay hidden behind gravity’s deceiving skirts.

Gravity can’t exist without an electromagnetic force. It is dependent on the electrified plasma that thinly permeates the universe. Plasma is the cohesive agent cosmologists claim for gravity.

Gravity only has impact as a force when it is contained in enormous celestial bodies (suns, planets, moons). At the granular level, where gravity supposedly draws particles together in the vacuum of space to create everything in the universe, it has literally no power! It is useless!

This explains why massive cheating is needed to make the gravity math work. But, in contrast, if the immense power of electricity is plugged into the same formulas, the math works without fudge factors. The universe’s “missing” 96% becomes mathematically viable, and reality is served rather than cosmology’s fragile egos.

e u thunderbolts 240

For those who think I might be off base here, let me refer you to the same sources I used to locate this paradigm-busting information. Two marvelous websites that support what is called The Electric Universe Theory are found here:

I have started this eBook with cosmology and astrophysics because they are the sciences most concerned with how the universe began, and because their dogmatism illustrates why I keep insisting Everything You Know Is Wrong. This is one of numerous examples I will provide to support Intervention Theory as we move on.

The sad truth is that in every field of science, Young Turks have to serve their leaders when those leaders are the oldest, crustiest, and most conservative members of the field. Then, when those old “defenders of the faith” die out, what were once Young Turks take over for them and are forced to defend the same bankrupt faith.

The Origin of Earth and of Life
coalesce 240

Cosmologists tell us our solar system began as a cloud of dust and gas swirling as a disk that separated into the sun, planets, moons, comets, and asteroids. This scenario could be accurate.

However, as previously noted, gravity could not cause any granular particles to aggregate in the vacuum of space. That had to be caused by the electromagnetism generated by the electrified plasma that exists throughout the universe.

Mainstream geologists have concluded that the solar system began to coalesce into its various planets and moons at around 4.5 billion years ago (bya). Agreement among experts does not mean their opinions are reliable, but in this case I accept their conclusion as a reasonable guess.

heavy bombardment 240

Another mainstream consensus is that during the proto-Earth’s first half-billion years it was a cauldron of seething lava relentlessly impacted by meteors and asteroids tearing through space.

This hellish period is called the Early Heavy Bombardment (EHB), from 4.5 bya to 4.1 bya, followed by the even more destructive impacts of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), 4.1 to 3.8 bya, and notable for the smaller craters it left on the proto-Moon and the proto-Earth.

[Large Moon craters may not be from impacts. The Moon must be a topic in another eBook.]

Despite the EHB and LHB, in those 0.7 billion years proto-Earth steadily cooled and solidified in the sub-zero temperatures of space. The first rocks seem to have formed at around 3.8 bya.

Science teaches that those rocks were in small masses of land that gradually grew as volcanoes spewed more lava. With eruptions came steam that condensed into the first puddles of water.

[Heated debate centers on why so much water is now on Earth. This too is for another eBook.]

We are told that at 2 bya, surface cooling was complete. Dry land that resembled today’s lava fields was widespread, as was abundant water in collections that ranged from shallow pools to ponds to lakes to seas. Earth had become Earth.

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primordial soup theory 240

Now, what about the origin of life? When did it occur? How did it occur? The mainstream gives two options and rejects a third:

  1. They accept as a possibility Undirected Panspermia. This is the idea that life “drifts” across space carried on asteroids or meteors that crashed into Earth.
  2. They support the idea that life originates by Spontaneous Generation. This idea is that life was created by sheer chance when a lightning bolt struck a “warm pond” (a term coined by Charles Darwin) filled with what came to be called “primordial soup,” a form of witches’ brew containing the “building blocks” of life.

The Primordial Soup Theory is shown at right. Reality extends only as far as the top part of the image. Molecules like the five shown exist now and almost certainly existed in the distant past. Then, according to scientific imaginings, they moved onto a magic yellow brick road to life.

Experts insist that somehow, someway, those original molecules managed to spontaneously reassemble into ever more complex molecules that somehow, someway, formed themselves into the single cells of the earliest life forms.

junkyard hurricane 240

The fact that spontaneous self-assembly into complex molecules does not happen now, nor can it be forced to happen in coherent patterns in the most sophisticated laboratories on Earth, should be an indication that this theory, like the gravity-based one of cosmologists, needs work.

British astrophysicist Fred Hoyle summed up the problem neatly when he said the likelihood of a lightning bolt striking water to assemble simple molecules into a life form was equal to the likelihood of a tornado sweeping through a junkyard and correctly assembling a jetliner.

directed panspermia 240

The third option, which the mainstream rejects, is Directed Panspermia, which is similar to undirected Panspermia, except that the first life forms were guided here by higher intelligence.

Thus, the mainstream hangs its hat on a miracle worthy of God when a lightning bolt struck the “primordial soup” to forge basic molecules into simple life — or on a similarly unlikely miracle that simple life forms came here on meteors.

The lightning-bolt-hits-primordial-soup theory is still taught around the world, but not because mainstream scientists regard it seriously. They know as well as anyone how absurd it sounds.

Unfortunately, they have no choice but to fake conviction about it because they have no other theory to take its place. Some few scientists do admit they have no plausible idea, but most of them insist on riding the same old lame horse.

Like the equations of the cosmologists, which required “miracles” to make sense, the same is true for biologists. The same kinds of miracles are fudge-factored in to explain life, when they have answers that are as easy to grasp as the difference between gravity and electricity.

In the same way cosmologists stick with the mistake of gravity, biology’s mistake, the core of its ossified dogma, is that every aspect of life on Earth must be accounted for in a “natural” manner, in strictly terrestrial terms. To explain life by using “outside” factors is unacceptable, so alternate ideas are automatically discounted.

Despite automatic rejection, alternative ideas for the origin of life make a much stronger case than biological dogma. Such ideas also hew far more closely to the actual facts of life than do the fantasies created by imaginative scientists.

Life did not start by accident when lightning struck a warm pond of primordial soup. Its start was so unlikely, experts can’t begin to explain it rationally, so rather than try, they obscure it.

How Did Life Actually Get Here?

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prokaryote 600
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prokaryote 240

How could simple molecules like ammonia, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, and water, floating loose in Earth’s environment, turn into nucleic acids directing proteins and lipids to make cell membranes?

That didn’t happen because it can’t happen, so there must be another answer … and there is! It turns out life suddenly appears on Earth — at a highly improbable time, in a highly improbable form, in a highly improbable manner. Let’s set aside its improbability to ask how it appeared.

The image to the right is a prokaryote. It represents millions of types that currently exist, and all are complex one-celled bacteria with DNA strands floating free in the cell’s cytoplasm rather than being encased in a nucleus. That comes later.

Prokaryotes (pro-carry-oats) today are adapted to current conditions, but many types survive in the extreme environments of the earliest Earth. They are anaerobic (living without oxygen).

They thrive in salt, sulphur, methane, boiling heat, freezing cold, or under high pressures at great depths. In doing so, many — but not all — of their metabolic processes produce oxygen.

Given their extreme durability and capacity to pump oxygen into the environment, they would be perfect “seeds” to establish life on any protoplanet. If you wanted to spread life across the galaxy, prokaryotes would be the ideal tool.

cruise the galaxy 240

Imagine certain entities of indeterminate origin decided to ensure life would be given a chance to take root and thrive on any of the 50 million planets in our galaxy where it might flourish. How could those entities be sure it happened?

How about loading an enormous spaceship with the most durable prokaryotic bacteria, and then setting out to visit all of the new solar systems forming across our galaxy? Disregard the issue of the great distances involved. These entities learned long ago how to cruise the galaxy as easily as we drive around our neighborhoods.

Okay, a freshly coalescing solar system looms ahead. What do we do? Wait a billion or more years for its planets and moons to cool? Naaah! Why bother? We have prokaryotes on board!

They can live anywhere, so let’s go ahead and dump them onto the scalding lava beds spewing from the active volcanoes, and into the seething
collections of condensed steam, both of which will later turn into dry land and pools of water.

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eukaryote 600
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eukaryote 240

Why waste one or two billion years waiting for cooling when the metabolism of indestructible anaerobic prokaryotes can put oxygen into the air and water of any congealing planets? That allows those planets to move to the next phase of complex life: eukaryotes (you-carry-oats).

Eukaryotes (pictured at right) are much larger and vastly more complex than prokaryotes. The simplest types remain single-celled bacteria, but they have a radically different internal design that encases their DNA in a central nucleus. Also, some are anaerobic oxygen producers, while others are aerobic, using oxygen to produce other gases.

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goldilocks zone 240

The much larger eukaryotes would give a huge advantage to our Intragalactic Terraformers, because eukaryote metabolism puts much more oxygen into the air and water of any planet in what we consider The Goldilocks Zone — the area not too hot, not too cold, but “just right.”

We assume the Goldilocks Zone of a star of any size (blue stripe) can support the life cycles of multi-cellular life forms, up to highly complex forms that contain species and subspecies.

Right now, Earth is the only planet we can be certain fully utilizes its place in the Goldilocks Zone around our Sun, but astronomers find new stars with planets in their Goldilocks Zones on a regular basis. That doesn’t mean they support complex life, because we don’t fully understand the vagaries of life beyond Earth’s boundaries.

star wars bar scene 240

Many experts insist life is too complex to have formed anywhere except on Earth. Others feel its exceeding complexity ensures that if it exists elsewhere, it will have a uniform genetic code. To presume it spontaneously assembles around different templates seems highly improbable.

With Earthly life so complex, it seems safe to presume the same structure exists everywhere. Likewise, because Earth contains millions of different life forms, the famous bar scene in the movie Star Wars may be entirely reasonable.

Is Terraforming a Real Possibility?
first prokaryotes 240

As our solar system formed, any Intragalactic Terraformers passing by could not have known which planets would end up in the zone of life.

Also, the Goldilocks Zone is a construct of our current understanding of how life works on our Sun and Earth. A larger area around other suns might support complex varieties of life we can’t begin to imagine. The depth of our ignorance about these matters is certain to be profound.

Let’s assume that everywhere life exists — on Earth and beyond — it is every bit as resilient and prolific as here. Whether that is true or not, we do know that myriad varieties are here, and we know when the first prokaryotes appeared.

Despite fanciful dogmas experts preach to the uninformed, when prokaryotes first appeared, Earth was as depicted above, as it would have been if our imagined Intragalactic Terraformers were actually at work. And if they were, they provide a much more plausible explanation.

Earth coalesced from primordial dust and gas at 4.5 bya, then the EHB and LHB bombarded it until 3.8 bya, when recently cooled lava formed the first rocks. No Darwinian “warm ponds” of primordial soup existed in those early eras, only a seething, steaming, hellish cauldron of heat.

All across that cauldron, between 4 bya and 3.5 bya, with no precursor forms to set the stage, in corrosive conditions damaging to potential biochemical reactions, a wide array of prokaryotic bacteria suddenly appeared! As if by magic!

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archaebacteria eubacteria 240

If that isn’t miraculous enough, we can take it up a notch. It seems logical to assume that the first life forms had to be of one kind . . . right? It makes sense. First life on Earth, struggling to establish a foothold, it has to be only one kind.

If that were true, “experts” in this field could sleep easily at night. Unfortunately, they can’t because since the late 1970s they have known that not the expected one but two distinct, very different types of prokaryotic bacteria came to Earth metaphorically walking hand-in-hand.

The two types are the archaea (ar-kay-ah) and the eubacteria (true bacteria). As you can see, they are similar, but still markedly different.

The archaea seem older because their functions seem more primitive, so biologists suggest they must have come first and somehow the bacteria evolved from them. However, both first appear in the fossil record at the same time, so arguing for evolution in this case is absurd. It is based on a need for it to be true rather than on facts.

They couldn’t be that different, could they?” Indeed they could! In 1977, they were divided into the archaea and bacteria because of major differences in the genetics and structure of the two groups. Some parts were similar, but others were vastly different — right out of the chute!

Day One of life on Earth saw two distinct types of prokaryotic bacteria appear at 4.0 bya to 3.5 bya, and leaving the first fossils at 3.5 bya. That means mainstream biology’s official story is a known deception, a fairy tale for willful adults.

anaerobic metabolism 240

No primordial soup in a seething cauldron, no lightning bolts from a cloudless sky. But there was a desperately needed flow of oxygen into the water of the gradually cooling Earth, which would optimize a “terraforming” strategy if that was indeed performed by outside intervention.

Whether or not outside intervention was a part of the equation, Goldilocks Zone protoplanets have certain pressing needs. They require life forms that can endure harsh environments and create enormous biomass (Earth’s bacterial biomass dwarfs all other life combined), live without oxygen, and they must produce oxygen as a byproduct of their anaerobic metabolism.

Almost as if Intragalactic Terraformers were in fact observing our nascent solar system, exactly what the proto-Earth needed was miraculously delivered at exactly the right time in exactly the right way. Prokaryotes were perfect for the job!

What Was Life’s Next Phase?

Prokaryotic bacteria were the only life forms on Earth for about 2 billion years — 4 bya to 2 bya. They dominated throughout its entire cooling process, until lava rocks mingled with water.

No plants or animals existed yet, not even in their simplest forms. Only masses of bacteria slowly, steadily producing enough oxygen to transform the environment of the protoplanet.

Why was oxygen so important to proto-Earth? Not what seems obvious: “Paving the way for aerobic higher organisms.” That was phase two. Phase one had to be chemically tying up all the free iron available in the newly forming crust.

Iron is abundant on Earth and throughout the universe (most meteorites are dominantly iron). It is extremely reactive with elemental oxygen, quickly forming iron oxide (rust) when the two combine. Thus, until all the exposed elemental iron could be converted to rust, oxygen would not be free for use by any complex life forms.

banded iron formations 240

Banded Iron Formations (BIFs), seen above in overlay, are found in every part of the globe and extend back to the earliest crust formations at 3.8 bya. Not until these strata and millions of miles like them formed could proto-Earth host the next phase of complex life development.

Countless prokaryotes generated the oxygen that created the worldwide array of BIFs, but the undisputed O2 champions were the many forms of cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae.

blue green algae 240

Cyanobacteria seem to be some of the earliest prokaryotes to appear on Earth, usually dated at 3.5 bya, but maybe well before. Whenever they did arrive, they were able to turn water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight into sugar and the oxygen that oxidized the free iron. (They’re still around today in countless forms of blue-green algae).

What is even more “lucky” — what Creationists would call “miraculous” — is that those bacteria and others like them possessed the remarkable attribute of enzymes that prevented their DNA from being ravaged by the hydroxyl radicals that develop during the production of oxygen.

The problem for mainstreamers is that those two diametrically opposed abilities — bacteria creating a poison they were uniquely resistant to — had no cause to develop in a natural way.

From an evolutionary standpoint, how could anaerobic bacteria “gradually” overcome the hydroxyl radicals that develop during oxygen creation, which seems biologically impossible?

Mainstreamers suggest that ultraviolet light striking ice on a primordial Earth could have created peroxide, which could have let certain anaerobic bacteria “evolve” a resistance to it.

This idea, while technically plausible, ignores the fact that ice didn’t begin to develop until a billion or more years after the cyanobacteria.

great oxygenation event 240

The ice came with what is known as the Great Oxygenation Event (GOE), at 2.4 bya. It took prokaryotes 1.4 billion years — from arriving at 3.8 bya until 2.4 bya — to make enough oxygen to reduce all of the free iron to the rust in BIFs

The GOE was a catastrophe of immense scale. As soon as oxygen could bubble out of the seas into the atmosphere (see the blue range above), it reacted with methane to create the Huronian Glaciation, the first — and maybe the worst — of what are called Snowball Earth disasters. This is when all, or nearly all, of the Earth’s surface was covered in massively thick sheets of ice.

The Huronian Glaciation lasted from 2.4 bya to 2.1 bya, and no one is sure exactly why it ended when it did. But, by 2.0 bya the planet had been freed of its ice shell, and life was ready to move to the next phase of its journey to complexity.

What Happened At 2.0 BYA?

As if on cue, with oxygen present after the end of the first Snowball Earth, a new form of life appeared to live alongside the prokaryotes — the eukaryotes. To open minds, this could suggest that the Intragalactic Terraformers were also Life-Managers, or Overseers, or Manipulators.

*****

I use the term “Terraformers” as others use “aliens,” which produces negative connotations in most media. “Terraformers” is more abstract and benign. Also, more than one kind can exist.

If they are real, and if they did in fact develop life and/or humans on Earth, then who are they? And who created them? This leads to an endless hall of mirrors echoing the same impossible-to-answer question: Who are their creators???

This brings up what is known as First Cause, the starting place for all of everything — of life and existence itself. No human actually knows anything about it, and we probably never will.

I don’t know, religion doesn’t, and scientists certainly don’t. Yet those institutions are forced by their intense rivalry for hearts and minds to pretend that they actually do know the answer.

Don’t believe either side. Religion and science stand eyeball-to-eyeball and are too frightened to blink, much less acknowledge any doubts or weaknesses in their propaganda. But, luckily, I don’t have those restrictions. I can busy myself trying to discover what is actually knowable.

complex single cell 240

As with the prokaryotes, many kinds of the new eukaryotes arrived suddenly, and exactly when their much larger, vastly more complex single-cell bodies were capable of thriving in the new environment created by prokaryote metabolism.

Biologists insist this is how classic Darwinian evolution works: when an environment presents an open niche, Nature will fill it. Unfortunately for them, evolution also requires “precursors,” forms of life that provide a base upon which to branch off a new form to fill an empty niche.

Prokaryotes are many things, but they can’t be precursors for eukaryotes. A staggering number of physical and biological differences between them make a direct Darwinian “descent with modification” impossible. It couldn’t happen, especially not “overnight,” which is seemingly how fast they arrived. Yet another miracle!

Because direct descent can’t be used, our ever-imaginative “experts” came up with a flight of fancy equal to anything the cosmologists ever concocted to “explain” gravity’s weaknesses.

They suggest eukaryotes must have originated when larger prokaryotes became cannibalistic and consumed smaller ones, turning those into various functioning parts within their bodies, including the crucial, essential mitochondria.

prokaryote eukaryote 240

Is that theory likely? Not at all, not even in the ballpark. Understand that a long list of complex differences exists between the prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Size is the most obvious one, but an amazing array of metabolic advances (including an encapsulated nucleus) appeared with them.

Some prokaryotes were larger than others, but their average size would be the light green dots seen in the eukaryote in the illustration at right.

Given so many significant differences, how could larger prokaryotes cannibalize smaller ones, and by doing so grow enormously while utterly transforming their metabolic processes?

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prokaryotic cannibal 600
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prokaryotic cannibal 367

A further absurd aspect of the mainstream’s explanation is that all prokaryotes — large and small — managed to live peacefully for 2 billion years, until, out of the blue, some larger ones supposedly turned into cannibals. How? Why?

Even if prokaryotic cannibalism was a known phenomenon (and to my knowledge it is not), wouldn’t the victims be turned into food? Into energy? How could a consumed prokaryote turn into a functioning body part inside what ate it?

This idea is wild speculation, but many strident people with a “Ph.D.” after their names insist it had to occur, and they are not shy about calling on “magic” and “miracles” to make their story plausible. It’s not quite the same as “God did it all!” but it does seem to come dubiously close.

However the eukaryotes appeared, though, they were a huge leap forward from the prokaryotes.

What Followed The Eukaryotes?

Indestructible anaerobic bacteria (prokaryotes) appeared on the seething proto-Earth as soon as conceivably possible to start transforming the biosphere into something more habitable.

Similarly, eukaryotes appeared precisely at the end of 300 million years of Huronian Snowball Earth, during which the planet’s entire surface was blanketed by ice to a mile or more thick!

Thus, the appearance of the eukaryotes seems timed with astounding good fortune — literally another miracle! — since they arrived precisely when they were capable of thriving on Earth.

great oxygenation event 240

Let’s re-examine the chart at right showing the amount of oxygen on Earth since prokaryotes arrived to begin creating it. Stage 1 shows the 1.4 billion years prokaryotes needed to oxidize the free iron while the Earth’s surface cooled.

Stage 2 had two parts. The first started at 2.4 bya, after the free iron was oxidized into rust and the GOE pumped oxygen into the air to react with methane to create the Huronian Snowball Earth. That ended at 2.1 bya.

The second half of Stage 2 saw arrival of the huge new eukaryotes, which started producing more oxygen than ever before. It ended at 1.85 bya, when prokaryotes and eukaryotes seemed to stabilize in their environments and thrived.

Stage 3 saw oxygen created at a steady rate to do another job as crucial as oxidizing free iron. After the 1.4 billion years needed to do that in Stage 1, another billion years — 1.8 to .8 bya — saw oxygen from prokaryotes and eukaryotes build an Ozone Layer to shield the land and near surface of the sea below the atmosphere.

Complex life cannot exist without that shield. It absorbs nearly all of the Sun’s ultraviolet light, which is deadly harmful to most living species. Unless free iron is oxidized and an ozone layer is established, no protoplanet can ever support complex higher life forms. Another miracle!

Stage 4 extends from .8 bya to .6 bya, and that is the Cryogenian Period, a series of what is now considered to be three separate Snowball Earth episodes, but which may have been one extended 200 million-year-long episode, like the 300 million-year-long Huronian Glaciation.

In Stage 4, oxygen built up under the insulation created by the ozone layer, and with increased oxygen came the next huge step forward in the history of life. Like the bacteria, these creatures appeared at the ideal time, precisely when the environment could support advanced bodies.

age of dinosaurs 240

Stage 5 began at 600 mya and continues to this day. The large upward spike in the amount of oxygen was during the Age of Dinosaurs, when enormous beasts prowled the earth and equally enormous trees and plants covered the land.

This, however, leapfrogs our story.

ediacaran biota 240

Let’s return to the next forms of life to join the prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Around 600 mya they suddenly appeared in the planet’s waters and flourished. They were the Earth’s first complex, multicelled organisms — the Ediacaran Biota.

fossil record 240

Exactly like prokaryotes and eukaryotes before them, the ediacarans appeared “overnight” in the fossil record in a wide range of varieties.

Just as the eukaryotes followed a global freeze, ediacarans appeared at the end of another — the Cryogenian period, which was the 200 million years (800 mya to 600 mya) that saw either one extended Snowball Earth, or a series of three.

Also as with both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the ediacarans appeared at exactly the optimum time for them to do so! Yet another “miracle”!

Even more miraculous is that to this day no scientists can say with certainty exactly what ediacarans were or how they lived. They were morphologically distinct from all the prior and later forms, making them utterly unique in the history of life on Earth — a lingering mystery.

plants or animals 240

Plants … or animals? Nobody knows. They had a variety of shapes — discs, tubes, fronds, bags, even quilts — but did they have mouths? Don’t know. Any digestion? Don’t know. Were they mobile or stationary? Don’t know. There are imaginative interpretations of how they might have looked, but all of those are guesswork.

The key to Ediacaran biota is that in some still unknown manner they seem to pave the way for much more complex animals with skeletons — both internal and external—in the phase of life that followed their enigmatic 50 million year reign as the highest forms of life on Earth.

*****

If we readily challenge conventions, we might accept Intragalactic Terraformers made all this happen as it did — well coordinated and on time. Yet, time is big a problem. How could they take such an incredibly long view of this project?

How could they initiate a process that requires billions of years to complete? The answer has to be “experience,” which means they have no concept of time as we humans understand it.

If indeed they were out and about, seeding life throughout the galaxy, they had to know what they were doing, so projects requiring billions of years would have to be par for their course.

Naturally, mainstream science assures us this scenario could not possibly have happened, but is that opinion based on facts or ingrained bias?

What Followed The Ediacarans?

For 50 million years, the ediacarans ruled the seas. The prokaryotic and eukaryotic bacteria still thrived, but in reduced roles compared to the ediacarans, which were vastly larger in size — some fossils were like bathroom throw rugs — and had vastly more complex bodies.

Despite knowing little more about them than their various sizes and their greatly increased complexity compared to what preceded them, we do know when and how their reign ended.

Unlike the prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which functioned perfectly in tandem and are with us to this day, Ediacaran biota seem to have served some purpose and then were eliminated. By 550 mya, they went from clogging the seas to gone.

What happened to them? Why and how did so many go extinct? Nobody understands that. The best answer, really, is: “It just … happened.” Again, like magic, but in a destructive mode.

Regardless of how and why the reign of the ediacarans ended, we know what came next. It was without doubt the most bizarre event in the history of life on Earth — from then until now.

cambrian explosion 01 240

It came with no fanfare, no end of a glaciation, no global catastrophe that left its impact in the fossil record. As with the end of the Ediacaran cycle, the next dominant phase of life on Earth, it is said, “Seems to have just … happened.”

It is known as the Cambrian Explosion, so called because it was a literal explosion of life forms that replaced the multi-cellular, multi-formed, inexplicable ediacarans with a broad range of astonishingly sophisticated creatures.

cambrian explosion 02 240

These are the first “advanced” animals, the first bilaterians, which had left and right sides to go along with the tops and bottoms of the radially symmetrical ediacarans. (Very few of the early bilaterians survive today, the most familiar of them probably the uniquely shelled Nautilus).

We’re talking endoskeletons and exoskeletons; mouths, digestive tracts, and anuses; very large to very small species; predators and prey; and reproduction by male/female sexual relations.

It was a bonanza of new species with enormous complexity. In fact, most animal phyla known today appeared during the Cambrian explosion.

cambrian explosion 03 240

This inexplicable eruption of life was a giant leap toward the myriad of forms on Earth now, and once again the whole of it came seemingly overnight, seemingly “out of nowhere” … a miracle so miraculous, we need a special word for it … a word with Biblical heft and scale:

Supercalifragilisticexpealidocious!

Naturally, mainstreamers struggle valiantly to account for this stubbornly inexplicable event in terms that suit the dogma that only “natural” explanations are acceptable for consideration.

They point out that if the Cambrian explosion required a million years to complete, that is not unduly rapid. Okay, let’s do some quick math:

Prokaryotes appeared between 4.0 and 3.5 bya. Let’s say 3.75 bya. The Cambrian began at 550 mya. 3.75 bya minus 550 mya equals 3.2 billion years with single-celled bacteria and a bit with ediacarans, and then boom! Most animal phyla!

Some say the Cambrian explosion occurred in only a few thousand years. Other insist it lasted a million or more. Compared to the 3.2 billion years that came before it, even a million years is .0003%! In relative terms, it’s an eye blink!

Thus, scientists are left with only verbal fast shuffles and befuddling sleights of mind as they explain a phenomenon that in “natural,” purely Darwinian terms is as humbug as humbug gets.

Mainstreamers are not entirely blind to facts, but they lack other options. Like cosmologists, they must defend an ossified dogma that paints them into a corner where the truth doesn’t fit.

What Was The Cambrian Explosion?
cambrian explosion 04 240

To find any degree of truth about the Cambrian explosion, and all that came before it, we must consider facts at anyone’s disposal, but which mainstream scientists avoid discussing openly.

Prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and ediacarans appear on Earth unexpectedly and rapidly, bearing no apparent relation to each other. But the kicker is that all three arrived at the ideal time for each to perform a critical task needed for turning a raw protoplanet into a viable home for complex life.

Because these facts are undeniable, it really is as if Intragalactic Terraformers were at work, which strongly supports Intervention Theory.

With the Cambrian explosion, the Terraformers seem to have deposited a starter kit with infinite biological potential and flexibility. None of the new Cambrian species had predecessors, yet the planet’s seas were filled with an extraordinarily wide array of animals that to our eyes look as if they must have originated on other planets.

The bleating of mainstream science that all of life must have occurred “naturally,” by means of evolution, can be discounted as the absurdity it is now and always has been. There is no way to account for the sudden emergence of all the forms than to bring up the “A” word — alien.

From Day One through the Cambrian explosion no new life forms had a plausible — much less a certifiable — “precursor,” which is required for evolution to be the force that generated them.

With no clear linkage between early life forms, why can we not consider the glaringly obvious possibility that they all were in fact extrasolar?

Because mainstream science enforces its self-proclaimed “authority” to insist that we can’t.

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loe timeline 240

The illustration at right encapsulates the timeline of life on Earth, which we must outline before discussing the far more complex “higher” forms of life that came after the Cambrian explosion.

From coalescing at 4.5 bya, the EHB and LHB brought a hard rain of asteroids onto the Earth until the first crust emerged at 3.8 bya. During this long stretch of turmoil across the seething surface, it was impossible for even the simplest life form to have spontaneously aggregated.

Nonetheless, at 4 bya the first prokaryotes have arrived, appearing “out of nowhere,” hale and hearty, shrugging off all the fire and brimstone pounding down on them as if that hellish siege was no worse than a warm summer drizzle.

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Notice, too, that the reddish color representing free iron immediately begins to lighten with the arrival of prokaryotes. This continues unabated with an ever-increasing biomass of prokaryotes through 3.5 bya, 3.0 bya, 2.5 bya, until the next inexplicable “arrival” of eukaryotes at 2.0 bya.

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From 2.0 bya, the color turns to ever-darkening shades of green, onward through 1.5 bya, to 1.0 bya and on into the last curve of the illustration, where a frond represents the start of 50 million years of world dominance by Ediacaran biota.

Following the ediacarans comes the Cambrian explosion at .55 bya (550 mya), represented by bizarre life forms and something like a nautilus.

Notice how all that remains, the entire panoply of complex life — through dinosaurs and their demise, moving forward to humans — appears and goes forward from only 500 mya, just 15% of the entire 3.3 billion years since prokaryotes arrived. All advanced life is relatively recent.

What Happened With Advanced Life?
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How Does Science Defend Its Position?
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What Theories Does Science Offer?
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What About Plants and Insects?
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Life Since 65 Million Years Ago
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The Miocene Epoch

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Miocene Apes

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How Did Short-Armed Apes Move?

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Did We Share A Common Ancestor?

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From Nexus
Emergence of Domesticated Plants

There are two basic forms of plants and animals: wild and domesticated. The wild ones far outnumber the domesticated ones, which may explain why vastly more research is done on the wild forms. But it could just as easily be that scientists shy away from the domesticated ones because the things they find when examining them are so far outside the accepted evolutionary paradigm.

Nearly all domesticated plants are believed to have appeared between 10,000 and 5,000 years ago, with different groups coming to different parts of the world at different times. Initially, in the so-called Fertile Crescent of modern Iraq, Syria and Lebanon, came wheat, barley and legumes, among other varieties. Later on, in the Far East, came wheat, millet, rice and yams. Later still, in the New World, came maize (corn), peppers, beans, squash, tomatoes and potatoes.

Many have "wild" predecessors that were apparently a starting point for the domesticated variety, but others — like many common vegetables — have no obvious precursors. But for those that do, such as wild grasses, grains and cereals, how they turned into wheat, barley, millet, rice, etc. is a profound mystery.

No botanist can conclusively explain how wild plants gave rise to domesticated ones. The emphasis here is on "conclusively". Botanists have no trouble hypothesizing elaborate scenarios in which Neolithic (New Stone Age) farmers somehow figured out how to hybridize wild grasses, grains and cereals, not unlike Gregor Mendel when he cross-bred pea plants to figure out the mechanics of genetic inheritance. It all sounds so simple and so logical, almost no one outside scientific circles ever examines it closely.

Gregor Mendel never bred his pea plants to be anything other than pea plants. He created short ones, tall ones and different-colored ones, but they were always pea plants that produced peas. (Pea plants are a domesticated species, too, but that is irrelevant to the point to be made here.)

On the other hand, those New Stone Age farmers who were fresh out of their caves and only just beginning to turn soil for the first time (as the "official" scenario goes), somehow managed to transform the wild grasses, grains and cereals growing around them into their domesticated "cousins". Is that possible? Only through a course in miracles!

Actually, it requires countless miracles within two large categories of miracles. The first was that the wild grasses and grains and cereals were useless to humans. The seeds and grains were maddeningly small, like pepper flakes or salt crystals, which put them beyond the grasping and handling capacity of human fingers. They were also hard, like tiny nutshells, making it impossible to convert them to anything edible. Lastly, their chemistry was suited to nourishing animals, not humans.

So wild varieties were entirely too small, entirely too tough and nutritionally inappropriate for humans. They needed to be greatly expanded in size, greatly softened in texture and overhauled at the molecular level — which would be an imposing challenge for modern botanists, much less Neolithic farmers.

Despite the seeming impossibility of meeting those daunting objectives, modern botanists are confident the first sodbusters had all they needed to do it: time and patience. Over hundreds of generations of selective crossbreeding, they consciously directed the genetic transformation of the few dozen that would turn out to be most useful to humans.

And how did they do it? By the astounding feat of doubling, tripling and quadrupling the number of chromosomes in the wild varieties! In a few cases, they did better than that. Domestic wheat and oats were elevated from an ancestor with seven chromosomes to their current 42 — an expansion by a factor of six. Sugar cane was expanded from a 10-chromosome ancestor to the 80-chromosome monster it is today — a factor of eight.

The chromosomes of others, like bananas and apples, were only multiplied by factors of two or three, while peanuts, potatoes, tobacco and cotton, among others, were expanded by factors of four. This is not as astounding as it sounds, because many wild flowering plants and trees have multiple chromosome sets.

But that brings up what Charles Darwin himself called the "abominable mystery" of flowering plants. The first ones appear in the fossil record between 150 and 130 million years ago, primed to multiply into over 200,000 known species. But no one can explain their presence because there is no connective link to any form of plants that preceded them.

It is as if, dare I say it?, they were brought to Earth by something akin to You Know What. If so, then it could well be that they were delivered with a built-in capacity to develop multiple chromosome sets, and somehow our Neolithic forebears cracked the codes for the ones most advantageous to humans.

However the codes were cracked, the great expansion of genetic material in each cell of the domestic varieties caused them to grow much larger than their wild ancestors. As they grew, their seeds and grains became large enough to be easily seen and picked up and manipulated by human fingers. Simultaneously, the seeds and grains softened to a degree where they could be milled, cooked and consumed. And at the same time, their cellular chemistry was altered enough to begin providing nourishment to humans who ate them. The only word that remotely equates with that achievement is: miracle.

Of course, "miracle" implies that there was actually a chance that such complex manipulations of nature could be carried out by primitive yeomen in eight geographical areas over 5,000 years. This strains credulity because, in each case, in each area, someone actually had to look at a wild progenitor and imagine what it could become, or should become, or would become.

Then they somehow had to ensure that their vision would be carried forward through countless generations that had to remain committed to planting, harvesting, culling and crossbreeding wild plants that put no food on their tables during their lifetimes, but which might feed their descendants in some remotely distant future.

It is difficult to try to concoct a more unlikely, more absurd, scenario, yet to modern-day botanists it is a gospel they believe with a fervor that puts many "six day" Creationists to shame. Why?

Because to confront its towering absurdity would force them to turn to You Know What for a more logical and plausible explanation.

To domesticate a wild plant without using artificial (i.e., genetic) manipulation, it must be modified by directed crossbreeding, which is only possible through the efforts of humans. So the equation is simple.

    • Firstly, wild ancestors for many (but not all) domestic plants do seem apparent.
    • Secondly, most domesticated versions did appear from 10,000 to 5,000 years ago.
    • Thirdly, the humans alive at that time were primitive barbarians.
    • Fourthly, in the past 5,000 years, no plants have been domesticated that are nearly as valuable as the dozens that were "created" by the earliest farmers all around the world.

Put an equal sign after those four factors and it definitely does not add up to any kind of Darwinian model.

Botanists know they have a serious problem here, but all they can suggest is that it simply had to have occurred by natural means because no other intervention — by God or You Know What — can be considered under any circumstances.

That unwavering stance is maintained by all scientists, not just botanists, to exclude overwhelming evidence such as the fact that in 1837 the Botanical Garden in St Petersburg, Russia, began concerted attempts to cultivate wild rye into a new form of domestication. They are still trying, because their rye has lost none of its wild traits, especially the fragility of its stalk and its small grain. Therein lies the most embarrassing conundrum botanists face.

To domesticate a wild grass like rye or any wild grain or cereal (which was done time and again by our Neolithic forebears), two imposing hurdles must be cleared. These are the problems of "rachises" and "glumes", which I discuss in my book, Everything You Know Is Wrong ; Book One: Human Origins (pp. 283-285) (Adamu Press, 1998). Glumes are botany's name for husks, the thin covers of seeds and grains that must be removed before humans can digest them. Rachises are the tiny stems that attach seeds and grains to their stalks.

While growing, glumes and rachises are strong and durable, so rain won't knock the seeds and grains off their stalks. At maturity, they become so brittle that a breeze will shatter them and release their cargo to propagate. Such a high degree of brittleness makes it impossible to harvest wild plants because every grain or seed would be knocked loose during the harvesting process.

So, in addition to enlarging, softening and nutritionally altering the seeds and grains of dozens of wild plants, the earliest farmers also had to figure out how to finely adjust the brittleness of every plant's glumes and rachises.

That adjustment was of extremely daunting complexity, perhaps more complex than the transformational process itself. The rachises had to be toughened enough to hold seeds and grains to their stalks during harvesting, yet remain brittle enough to be collected easily by human effort during what has come to be known as "threshing".

Likewise, the glumes had to be made tough enough to withstand harvesting after full ripeness was achieved, yet still be brittle enough to shatter during the threshing process. And — here's the kicker — each wild plant's glumes and rachises required completely different degrees of adjustment, and the final amount of each adjustment had to be perfectly precise! In short, there is not a snowball's chance that this happened as botanists claim it did.

Emergence of Domesticated Animals

As with plants, animal domestication followed a pattern of development that extended 10,000 to 5,000 years ago. It also started in the Fertile Crescent, with the "big four" of cattle, sheep, goats and pigs, among other animals. Later, in the Far East, came ducks, chickens and water buffalo, among others. Later still, in the New World, came llamas and vicuna. This process was not simplified by expanding the number of chromosomes.

All animals — wild and domesticated — are diploid, which means they have two sets of chromosomes, one from each parent. The number of chromosomes varies as widely as in plants (humans have 46), but there are always only two sets (humans have 23 in each).

The only "tools" available to Neolithic herdsmen were those available to farming kinsmen: time and patience. By the same crossbreeding techniques apparently utilized by farmers, wild animals were selectively bred for generation after generation until enough gradual modifications accumulated to create domesticated versions of wild ancestors. As with plants, this process required anywhere from hundreds to thousands of years in each case, and was also accomplished dozens of times in widely separated areas around the globe.

Once again, we face the problem of trying to imagine those first herdsmen with enough vision to imagine a "final model", to start the breeding process during their own lifetimes and to have it carried out over centuries until the final model was achieved. This was much trickier than simply figuring out which animals had a strong pack or herding instinct that would eventually allow humans to take over as "leaders" of the herd or pack.

For example, it took unbridled courage to decide to bring a wolf cub into a campsite with the intention of teaching it to kill and eat selectively and to earn its keep by barking at intruders (adult wolves rarely bark). And who could look at the massive, fearsome, ill-tempered aurochs and visualize a much smaller, much more amiable cow? Even if somebody could have visualized it, how could they have hoped to accomplish it? An aurochs calf (or a wolf cub, for that matter), carefully and lovingly raised by human "parents", would still grow up to be a full-bodied adult with hardwired adult instincts.

However it was done, it wasn't by crossbreeding. Entire suites of genes must be modified to change the physical characteristics of animals. (In an interesting counterpoint to wild and domesticated plants, domesticated animals are usually smaller than their wild progenitors.) But with animals, something more, something ineffable, must be changed to alter their basic natures from wild to docile. To accomplish it remains beyond modern abilities, so attributing such capacity to Neolithic humans is an insult to our intelligence.

All examples of plant and animal "domestication" are incredible in their own right, but perhaps the most incredible is the cheetah. There is no question it was one of the first tamed animals, with a history stretching back to early Egypt, India and China. As with all such examples, it could only have been created through selective breeding by Neolithic hunters, gatherers or early farmers. One of those three must get the credit.

The cheetah is the most easily tamed and trained of all the big cats. No reports are on record of a cheetah killing a human. It seems specifically created for high speeds, with an aerodynamically designed head and body. Its skeleton is lighter than other big cats; its legs are long and slim, like the legs of a greyhound. Its heart, lungs, kidneys and nasal passages are enlarged, allowing its breathing rate to jump from 60 per minute at rest to 150 bpm during a chase. Its top speed is 70 miles per hour, while a thoroughbred tops out at around 38 mph. Nothing on a savanna can outrun it. It can be outlasted, but not outrun.

Cheetahs are unique because they combine physical traits of two distinctly different animal families: dogs and cats. They belong to the family of cats, but they look like long-legged dogs. They sit and hunt like dogs. They can only partially retract their claws, like dogs instead of cats.

Their paw pads are thick and hard like a dog's, but to climb trees they use the first claw on their front paws in the same way a cat does. The light-colored fur on their body is like the fur of a short-haired dog, but the black spots on their bodies are inexplicably the texture of cat's fur. They contract diseases that only dogs suffer from, but they also get "cat only" diseases.

There is something even more inexplicable about cheetahs. Genetic tests have been done on them, and the surprising result was that in the 50 specimens tested they were all, every one, genetically identical with each other! This means the skin or internal organs of any of the thousands of cheetahs in the world could be switched with the organs of any other cheetah and not be rejected. The only other place such physical homogeneity is seen is in rats and other animals that have been genetically altered in laboratories.

Cheetahs stand apart, of course, but all domesticated animals have traits that are not explainable in terms that stand up to rigorous scientific scrutiny. Rather than deal with the embarrassment of confronting such issues, scientists studiously ignore them and, as with the mysteries of domesticated plants, explain them away as best they can. For the cheetah, they insist it simply cannot be some kind of weird genetic hybrid between cats and dogs, even though the evidence points squarely in that direction. And why? Because that, too, would move cheetahs into the forbidden zone occupied by You Know What.

The problem of the cheetahs' genetic uniformity is explained by something now known as the "bottleneck effect". What it presumes is that the wild cheetah population — which must have been as genetically diverse as its long history indicates — at some recent point in time went into a very steep population decline that left only a few breeding pairs alive. From that decimation until now, they have all shared the same restricted gene pool.

Unfortunately, there is no record of any extinction events that would selectively remove cheetahs and leave every other big cat to develop its expected genetic variation. So, as unlikely as it seems, the "bottleneck" theory is accepted as another scientific gospel.

Here it is appropriate to remind scientists of Carl Sagan's famous riposte when dealing with their reviled pseudoscience: "Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence." It seems apparent that Sagan learned that process in-house.

It also leads us, finally, to a discussion of humans, who are so genetically recent that we, too, have been forced into one of those "bottleneck effects" that attempt to explain away the cheetah.

Arrival of Humans

Like all plants and animals whether wild or domesticated, humans are supposed to be the products of slight, gradual improvements to countless generations spawned by vastly more primitive forebears. This was firmly believed by most scientists in the 1980s, when a group of geneticists decided to try to establish a more accurate date for when humans and chimpanzees split from their presumed common ancestor.

Paleontologists used fossilized bones to establish a timeline that indicated the split came between five and eight million years ago. That wide bracket could be narrowed, geneticists believed, by charting mutations in human mitochondrial DNA — small bits of DNA floating outside the nuclei of our cells. So they went to work collecting samples from all over the world.

When the results were in, none of the geneticists could believe it. They had to run their samples through again and again to be certain. Even then, there was hesitancy about announcing it. Everyone knew there would be a firestorm of controversy, starting with the paleontologists — who would be given the intellectual equivalent of a black eye and a bloody nose and their heads dunked into a toilet for good measure! This would publicly embarrass them in a way that had not happened since the Piltdown hoax was exposed.

Despite the usual scientific practice of keeping a lid on data that radically differs from a current paradigm, the importance of this new evidence finally outweighed concern for the image and feelings of paleontologists. The geneticists gathered their courage and stepped into the line of fire, announcing that humans were not anywhere near the official age range of eight to five million years old. Humans were only about200,000 years old. As expected, the howls of protest were deafening.

Time and much more testing of mitochondrial DNA and male Y-chromosomes now make it beyond doubt that the geneticists were correct. And the paleontologists have come to accept it because geneticists were able to squeeze humans through the same kind of "bottleneck effect" they used to try to ameliorate the mystery of cheetahs.

By doing so, they left paleontologists still able to insist that humans evolved from primitive forebears walking upright on the savannas of Africa as long ago as five million years, but that between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago "something" happened to destroy nearly all humans alive at the time, forcing them to reproduce from a small population of survivors.

That this "something" remains wholly unknown is a given, although Creationists wildly wave their hands like know-it-alls at the back of a classroom, desperate to suggest it was the Great Flood. But because they refuse to move away from the biblical timeline of the event (in the range of 6,000 years ago), nobody can take them seriously. Still, it seems the two sides might work together productively on this crucial issue. If only...

Apart from disputes about the date and circumstances of our origin as a species, there are plenty of other problems with humans. Like domesticated plants and animals, humans stand well outside the classic Darwinian paradigm. Darwin himself made the observation that humans were surprisingly like domesticated animals. In fact, we are so unusual relative to other primates that it can be solidly argued that we do not belong on Earth at all, that we are not even from Earth, because we do not seem to have developed here.

We are taught that, by every scientific measure, humans are primates very closely related to all other primates, especially chimpanzees and gorillas. This is so ingrained in our psyches that it seems futile even to examine it, much less to challenge it. But we will.

  • Bones. Human bones are much lighter than comparable primate bones. For that matter, our bones are much lighter than the bones of every "pre-human" ancestor through to Neanderthal. The ancestor bones look like primate bones; modern human bones do not.

  • Muscle. Human muscles are significantly weaker than comparable muscles in primates. Pound for pound, we are five to ten times weaker than any other primate. Any pet monkey is evidence of that. Somehow, getting "better" made us much, much weaker.

  • Skin. Human skin is not well adapted to the amount of sunlight striking Earth. It can be modified to survive extended exposure by greatly increasing melanin (its dark pigment) at its surface, which only the black race has achieved. All others must cover themselves with clothing or frequent shade or both, or sicken from radiation poisoning.

  • Body Hair. Primates need not worry about direct exposure to sunlight because they are covered from head to toe in a distinctive pattern of long body-hair. Because they are quadrupeds (move on all fours), the thickest hair is on their back, the thinnest on the chest and abdomen. Humans have lost the all-over pelt, and we have completely switched our area of thickness to the chest and abdomen while wearing the thin part on our back.

  • Fat. Humans have ten times as many fat cells attached to the underside of their skin as primates. If a primate is wounded by a gash or tear in the skin, when the bleeding stops the wound's edges lie flat near each other and can quickly close the wound by a process called "contracture". In humans, the fat layer is so thick that it pushes up through wounds and makes contracture difficult if not impossible. Also, contrary to the propaganda to try to explain this oddity, the fat under human skin does not compensate for the body hair we have lost. Only in water is its insulating capacity useful; in air, it is minimal at best.

  • Head Hair. All primates have head hair that grows to a certain length and then stops. Human head hair grows to such lengths that it could be dangerous in a primitive situation. Thus, we have been forced to cut our head hair since we became a species, which may account for some of the sharp flakes of stones that are considered primitive hominid "tools".

  • Fingernails and Toenails.  All primates have fingernails and toenails that grow to a certain length and then stop, never needing paring. Human fingernails and toenails have always needed paring. Again, maybe those stone "tools" were not only for butchering animals.

  • Skulls. The human skull is nothing like the primate skull. There is hardly any fair morphological comparison to be made, apart from the general parts being the same. Their design and assembly are so radically different as to make attempts at comparison useless.

  • Brains. The comparison here is even more radical because human brains are so vastly different. (To say "improved" or "superior" is unfair and not germane, because primate brains work perfectly well for what primates have to do to live and reproduce.)

  • Locomotion. The comparison here is easily as wide as the comparison of brains and skulls. Humans are bipedal; primates are quadrupeds. That says more than enough.

  • Speech. Human throats are completely redesigned relative to primate throats. The larynx has dropped to a much lower position, so humans can break typical primate sounds into the tiny pieces of sound (by modulation) that have come to be human speech.

  • Sex. Primate females have oestrous cycles and are sexually receptive only at special times. Human females have no oestrous cycle in the primate sense. They are continually receptive to sex. (Unless, of course, they have the proverbial headache!)

  • Chromosomes. This is the most inexplicable difference of all. Primates have 48 chromosomes. Humans are considered vastly superior to them in a wide array of areas, yet somehow we have only 46 chromosomes! This begs the question of how we could lose two full chromosomes — which represents a lot of DNA — in the first place, and in the process become so much better. Nothing about it makes logical sense.

  • Genetic Disorders. As with all wild animals (plants, too), primates have relatively few genetic disorders spread throughout their gene pools. Albinism is one that is common to many animal groups as well as humans. But albinism does not stop an animal with it from growing up and passing the gene for it into the gene pool. Mostly, though, serious defects are quickly weeded out in the wild. Often, parents or others in a group will do the job swiftly and surely, so wild gene pools stay relatively clear. In contrast, humans have over 4,000 genetic disorders, and several of those will absolutely kill every victim before reproduction is possible. This begs the question of how such defects could possibly get into the human gene pool in the first place, much less how they remain so widespread.

  • Genetic Relatedness. A favorite Darwinist statistic is that the total genome (all the DNA) of humans differs from chimpanzees by only 1% and from gorillas by 2%. This makes it seem as if evolution is indeed correct and that humans and primates are virtually kissing cousins. However, what they don't stress is that 1% of the human genome's three billion base pairs is 30 million base pairs — and to any You Know What that can adroitly manipulate genes, 30 million base pairs can easily add up to a tremendous amount of difference.

  • Everything Else. The above are the larger categories at issue in the discrepancies between primates and humans. There are dozens more listed as sub-categories below one or more of these.

To delve deeper into these fascinating mysteries, check The Scars of Evolution by Elaine Morgan (Oxford University Press, 1990). Her work is remarkable. And for a more in-depth discussion of the mysteries within our genes and those of domesticated plants and animals, see Everything You Know Is Wrong.

Breaking Ranks

When all of the above is taken together — the inexplicable puzzles presented by domesticated plants, domesticated animals and humans — it is clear that Darwin cannot explain it, modern scientists cannot explain it, not Creationists nor Intelligent Design proponents. None of them can explain it, because it is not explainable in only Earthbound terms.

We will not answer these questions with any degree of satisfaction until our scientists open their minds and squelch their egos enough to acknowledge that they do not, in fact, know much about their own backyard. Until that happens, the truth will remain obscured.

My personal opinion, which is based on a great deal of independent research in a wide range of disciplines relating to human origins, is that ultimately Charles Darwin will be best known for his observation that humans are essentially like domesticated animals.

I believe that what Darwin observed with his own eyes and research is the truth, and that modern scientists would see it as clearly as he did if only they had the motivation or the courage to seek it out. But for now, they don't, so, until then, we can only poke and prod at them in the hope of some day getting them to notice our complaints and address them. In order to poke and prod successfully, more people have to be alerted to the fact that another scientific fraud is being perpetrated.

Future editions of Icons of Evolution will discuss the current era when scientists ridiculed, ignored or simply refused to deal with a small mountain of direct, compelling evidence that outside intervention has clearly been at work in the genes of domesticated plants, animals and humans.  You Know What has left traces of their handiwork all over our bodies, all through our gene pools. All that will be required for the truth to come out is for a few "insiders" to break ranks with their brainwashed peers.

Look to the younger generation. Without mortgages to pay, families to raise and retirements to prepare for, they can find the courage to act on strong convictions. Don't expect it of anyone over forty, possibly even thirty. But somewhere in the world, the men and women have been born who will take Darwinism down and replace it with the truth.

DNA Deep Throat

I will end this eBook with a remarkable letter sent to me by email on February 12, 1999, from a man who, to protect himself from vindictive peers, called himself “DNA Deep Throat.”

He is a highly skilled geneticist whom I have since come to know by name, though he still must stay anonymous because his mainstream geneticist peers remain as vindictive as ever.

This man was instrumental in the early days of my dealings with the now well-known Starchild Skull, but in 1999, I was just getting started and in much need of help to figure out what it was [For more understanding of the Starchild Skull, a book about it, The Starchild Skull, is available at www.StarchildProject.com, and also through www.LloydPye.com, as is an eBook about it.]

An early theory about the Starchild was that it might be a human-alien hybrid, and a question that kept being asked was, “How can a human and an alien hybridize? Won’t they be too far apart genetically? How could that happen?”

As we have seen, that question is essentially the same one we have to answer in regard to Zana. With both Zana and the Starchild in mind, read the words sent to me in 1999, and you will have the same degree of insight they imparted to me.

Dear Mr. Pye:

I agree with your conclusions and will give you a few hints, if you wish, (speaking) as a “DNA Deep Throat.” First, look up the huge discontinuities between humans and the various apes for: (1) Whole mitochondrial DNA; (2) genes for the Rh Factor; (3) and human Y chromosomes, among others.

Regarding #3, I refer you to K.D. Smith’s 1987 study titled “Repeated DNA sequences of the human Y chromosome.” It says “Most human Y chromosome sequences thus far examined do not have homologues [same relative position or structure] on the Y chromosomes of other primates.”

Human female X chromosomes do look somewhat apelike, but not the male’s Y. This means that if humans are a crossbred species, the cross had to be between a female ape-like creature (i.e, “creature of Earth”) and a male being from elsewhere.

What the evolutionists do is find certain genes which look very similar between man and ape, then they make a “tree of descent” while ignoring those huge impassable abysses of difference elsewhere.

Also, by certain methods of DNA dating, one can tell that numerous genes have been recently added to the human genome. If workers in my field were to say such things openly, we would be ostracized and forced to live in a tent. Any work along these lines would be rejected without any form of appeal. So what can we do?

Sincerely,

DNA Deep Throat

Let’s leave it there, with DNA Deep Throat’s parting question: What can we do when we are up against a monolith like mainstream science, which won’t forsake its cherished dogmas until those dogmas are crammed down their throats?

The End

Contents: 000 — General