|Stan Gooch & the Neanderthal Legacy||From: New Dawn|
On the 13th of September 2010, in a Swansea, South Wales hospital, an embittered and reclusive man, hailed as a genius by some, yet marginalised by many mainstream scientists and academics, passed away at the age of seventy-eight.
In his later years Stan Gooch lived “virtually destitute” in “a rented caravan in a nearly abandoned Welsh trailer park – with neither telephone nor computer, his correspondence inked on the backs of galley proofs, and scarce personal contact – wholly lacking family, right at life’s raw edge.”
This was the sad end for a man who made incredibly original contributions to our understanding of the origins and nature of our own humanity. Colin Wilson once wrote of Gooch, “It has seemed to me for many years that Stan Gooch is one of the most underrated writers of our time.” We agree with this assessment.
Born in 1932 among the slums of southern London to working-class parents, Gooch raised himself from his dreary surroundings, ultimately earning a degree in Modern Languages at King’s College, London, and a degree in Psychology at Birkbeck College, London. After spending time, between earning his degrees, variously working in the scrap metal business, teaching in Coventry (English Midlands), and serving as “Head of Department” in a London grammar school, in 1964 Gooch was appointed a senior research psychologist at the National Children’s Bureau. He wrote scholarly articles and coauthored books on psychology.On the surface it seemed that Gooch was off to a respectable and potentially prosperous career. However, Gooch’s life would take a different turn, driven by his overwhelming interest in two subjects that on the surface might seem quite distinct, but for Gooch were intimately related:
- Psychical research (the paranormal, or what is now often referred to as parapsychology) and
- Understanding and reconstructing the mental and cultural world of Neanderthals and their bearing on modern humanity.
Ultimately Gooch gave up his secure position, turning down both the directorship of the National Children’s Bureau, and a professorship of Psychology at Brunel University, London, to pursue his research and writing full-time.
Unfortunately for Gooch, his books never had the mass appeal, with the concomitant income, he hoped for. Furthermore, psychical research is a subject that is viewed as fairly marginal at best by most academics, and Gooch’s conclusions concerning Neanderthal mentality and culture diverged so radically from the common conceptions of the time that mainstream scholars systematically ignored his work.
At the time of his death Gooch was depressed, bitter, and even angry that his ideas had not garnered the recognition that he felt they rightfully deserved. Perhaps he was ahead of his time, as many of his ideas about Neanderthals in particular are now being independently confirmed (although still generally without citing or crediting Gooch).
 Anonymous, “Stan Gooch 1932-2010”, posted at www.aulis.com/index.html (Accessed 23 October 2010); Geoff Ward, “A Sad End for Reclusive Writer Stan Gooch”, posted 26 October 2010, suite.io/geoff-ward/4d0h2g1 (Accessed 20 November 2010).
 Brent Logan, “An Urgent Appeal to Help the Acclaimed Author, Stan Gooch”, posted at www.brentlogan.net/sg/stan_gooch.htm (Accessed 8 June 2009).
 Colin Wilson, posted 11 September 2007 under the title “Colin Wilson writes about me”, posted on a Stan Gooch blog at www.myspace.com/stangooch/blog/308876837 (Accessed 9 June 2009); for other comments by Wilson on Gooch, see for instance: Colin Wilson, Atlantis and the Kingdom of the Neanderthals: 100,000 Years of Lost History, Rochester, Vermont: Bear and Company, 2006 (pp. 272-277, 281), and various remarks in Colin Wilson, Mysteries, New York: A Wideview/Perigee Book, G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1978/1980.
 For biographical details, see: Brent Logan, “Stan Gooch, Biography”, posted at www.brentlogan.net/sg/bio.htm (Accessed 8 June 2009); “Colin Wilson writes about me” (note 3, above); and autobiographical comments in Stan Gooch, The Paranormal, New York: Harper and Row, 1978.
 Of the time around during which he was at the National Children’s Bureau, Gooch comments dryly, “I was also married and divorced. So there were events enough to take up my days.” (The Paranormal [note 4], 17)
While teaching in Coventry in the late 1950s, Gooch began attending weekly séances, his introduction to the paranormal. This sparked a deep lifelong interest in psychic phenomena. Moreover, Gooch found that he personally had telepathic and mediumistic talents. At one séance Gooch and the other members of the circle became aware of “a crouching, ape-like shape” in the corner of the room that “approximated to most people’s idea of what an ancient cave-man would look like.” After a while the figure faded away and the séance continued.
Nearly two decades later Gooch would write,
- As regards the figure of the cave-man, which so very much impressed and haunted me both then and afterwards (in a wholly agreeable way, I must add) – I had [not] and could not have had any inkling that one day I would write books about Neanderthal man.
Gooch summarised his own work during this period as
- Looking always for further knowledge about the human condition, I was at the same time prospecting for a framework which could accommodate all the information that was accumulating.
Ultimately Gooch developed a framework and theory of human personality in terms of dualities, such as unconscious versus consciousness, religion versus science, magic versus logic, dreaming versus waking. In his list are two key comparisons: psychic phenomena versus materialism, and Neanderthal man versus modern man.
Gooch’s great insight was that while modern humans might manifest occasional psychic phenomena, Neanderthals “certainly possessed abilities in respect of the purely paranormal that far exceeded our own.” According to Gooch, we modern humans are literally the result of the dualities coming together, the biological interbreeding of Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons (that is so-called “modern humans,” Homo sapiens) and the melding of Neanderthal religious beliefs and cultural practices with Cro-Magnon societal elements even as Cro-Magnons may have come to physically dominate, and even apparently exterminate, the earlier Neanderthals.
 Gooch, The Paranormal, 7.
 Gooch, The Paranormal, 8
 Gooch, The Paranormal, 17
 Gooch, The Paranormal, 18; Gooch outlined his theory of human personality in the following trilogy: Stan Gooch, Total Man, London: Allen Lane, 1972; Stan Gooch, Personality and Evolution, London: Wildwood House, 1973; and Stan Gooch, The Neanderthal Question, London: Wildwood House, 1977.
 For a review of Gooch’s ideas on the paranormal, see Louis Proud, “Forces of the Unconscious Mind: Exploring the Work of Stan Gooch”, New Dawn 105 (November-December 2007), posted at www.newdawnmagazine.com/articles/forces-of-the-unconscious-mind-exploring-the-work-of-stan-gooch (Accessed 15 December 2008); see also Stan Gooch, The Origins of Psychic Phenomena: Poltergeists, Incubi, Succubi, and the Unconscious Mind, Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions, 2007 (Originally published under the title Creatures from Inner Space, London: Rider, 1984).
 Stan Gooch, The Dream Culture of the Neanderthals: Guardians of the Ancient Wisdom, Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions, 2006, 105 (Originally published under the title Guardians of the Ancient Wisdom, London: Wildwood House, 1979).
Bits of the skull that separate
humans (left) from Neanderthals (right).
Who, or what, the Neanderthals were has been a much discussed issue ever since their remains were first recognised in the middle nineteenth century. The popular conception of Neanderthals is that of big-browed, short, stocky, stooping, grunting, ape-like cave men (and women) eking out a meagre existence during the harsh conditions of ice age Europe, the Near East, and Southwest Asia.
Classic Neanderthals in Europe date from around 130,000 years ago to perhaps as recently as 24,000 years ago in Gibraltar, but Neanderthal characteristics and antecedents are seen in fossil forms going back to perhaps half a million years ago or earlier.
In many people’s minds Neanderthals are a primitive side branch of the human tree at best, a totally separate species from us, that was driven to extinction by the more intelligent and better armed “Cro-Magnon Man” group (archaic Homo sapiens, essentially the direct ancestors of living humans) who progressively migrated from East Africa into Eurasia during the period of about 60,000 to 30,000 years ago.
Stan Gooch had a very different view of the place and importance of Neanderthals – in Gooch’s view modern humanity is a result of the intermixing, both biologically and culturally, of Cro-Magnon and Neanderthal elements. In his words,
- A biological supernova occurred when Cro-Magnon and Neanderthal man met. We can, if we will listen, still clearly hear the echoes of that explosion and observe its after-effects… [B]ehind these echoes and tendrils we can also then detect the still fainter traces of Neanderthal civilisation itself, and hear the still fainter echoes of falling cities of dreams.
According to Gooch, Neanderthals possessed an intricate, psychically-charged, magical culture. Neanderthals built a long-lasting “high civilisation of dreams.” Neanderthal culture, more sophisticated than that of the Cro-Magnons when they first arrived in Europe, served as a primary source for much so-called ancient wisdom.
Gooch argued that Neanderthals were the original creators, the innovators, of high culture, of symbolic values and religious sensibilities, which early modern humans (Cro-Magnons) copied and adopted without genuine understanding. Neanderthal culture was not a civilisation of high technologies, but one of the mind and spirit that survives today in our beliefs, myths, folklore, and religious practices.
 Neanderthal is alternatively spelled Neandertal. The species Homo neanderthalensis was named in 1864 (see William King, “The Reputed Fossil Man of Neanderthal”, The Quarterly Journal of Science, 1, 88-97 with two lithographic plates [January 1864]) based on a skullcap found in the Neander Valley, Germany, in 1856 and first described in 1857, although remains subsequently recognized as Neanderthal had been found earlier in Belgium and Gibraltar. For general information on Neanderthals, see the following (and references cited therein): Clive Finlayson, The Humans Who Went Extinct: Why Neanderthals Died Out and We Survived, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009; C. David Kreger, “Homo neanderthalensis”, posted at www.archaeologyinfo.com/homoneaderthalensis.htm (Accessed 5 January 2011); Dennis O’Neil, “Evolution of Modern Humans: Neandertals”, posted at anthro.palomar.edu/homo2/mod_homo_2.htm (Accessed 5 January 2011); James Shreeve, The Neanderthal Enigma: Solving the Mystery of Modern Human Origins, New York: Harper Perennial, 1996; Robert Munro, “The Rise and Progress of Anthropology” (Address delivered 7 May 1894), Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 20, 215-244 with a plate (1895).
 For background information, see discussion in Erik Trinkaus, “European early modern humans and the fate of the Neandertals”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104 (18), 7367-7372 (1 May 2007).
 Stan Gooch, Cities of Dreams (subtitle on the cover of the 2001 paperback edition: When Women Ruled the Earth), London: Aulis Books, 1995, reprinted 2001, 7 (first published as Cities of Dreams [subtitle on the dust jacket of the hardback edition: The rich legacy of Neanderthal Man which shaped our civilisation], London: Rider [An imprint of Century Hutchinson], 1989).
 Our summary of Gooch’s ideas concerning Neanderthals is based primarily on his books The Neanderthal Question (note 9), The Dream Culture of the Neanderthals (note 11), Cities of Dreams (note 14), and Stan Gooch, The Neanderthal Legacy: Reawakening Our Genetic and Cultural Origins, Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions, 2008.
 Gooch, Cities of Dreams, 242 (Chapter 16 title).
Neanderthals developed in time a culture of the mind of a very high order, but also of a strangeness that is extremely difficult for us to imagine.
Neanderthals, according to Gooch, worshipped the cave bear, the spider, and the serpent – animals with whom they shared their caves. Neanderthals were the first humans to fully develop religious cults, and cave bear worship was their most significant cult. Neanderthals worshipped the number 13, associated with the moon and the lunar calendar, a number that is still considered magical today. Neanderthals developed a profound knowledge of crystals and minerals. According to Gooch, Neanderthals developed their own unique symbols, signs, and sophisticated language systems.
Neanderthals weaved and sewed embroidery, wore jewellery, painted their faces and bodies, danced, had an elaborate mythology and cosmology, built stone circles, utilised sacred fires, and made ceremonial sacrifices. They had their own grand celebrations and feasts, which were spectacularly colourful and creative performances.
They worshipped the moon and other celestial bodies including constellations still worshipped today worldwide such as The Big Bear, Little Bear, and Draco (the dragon or serpent in the sky). Gooch asserted that Neanderthals had a strong religious life, based on an earth-magic religion, and they believed in the afterlife, practicing complex burial rituals.
Neanderthals, as Gooch emphasised, were capable of great cultural innovations that included wearing jewellery and decorating their bodies and faces with colourful paints for special ceremonies. There is evidence that the sophisticated Chatelperronian culture of France belonged to the Neanderthals and not, as was formerly believed, to modern humans. This culture included symbolic artefacts, such as jewellery. The Uluzzian culture in Italy, also now attributed to Neanderthals, is another example – an innovative culture that included a variety of very sophisticated tools that were similar to modern humans’ tools. Neanderthals in Spain were painting perforated shells for decoration, using pigments, and engaged in other ritual behaviour. As archaeologist João Zilhão, has stated,
- The one thing these finds make clear is that Neanderthals were behaviourally modern. They were not like early modern humans anatomically, but they were cognitively as advanced or more so.
In many ways Neanderthal culture and Cro-Magnon culture were diametrically opposed. Gooch wrote,
- I believe the actuality of Neanderthal man – of whom archaeologists find only a handful of skeletons, a few altars, traces of ritualised burial, a range of flint tools, and an apparent knowledge of herbal remedies – was this: his was a moon-goddess-worshipping, matriarchal, food-gathering society, where women governed all matters. The only tasks delegated specifically to men were those where muscle power was directly and literally required, as in fighting, for example. The structure and nature of Cro-Magnon life was diametrically opposite. This was a patriarchal, hunter-warrior society, of which men governed all aspects, including religious life. Women were mere adjuncts in all things, whose main purpose was to bear sons and to comfort and care for the male. The supreme deity worshipped was the sun god.
Gooch believed that Neanderthals were a mostly nocturnal species, and came out at night. Observing the skies and the moon for thousands of generations, they had become experts in all phenomena of the stars, having a great understanding of cycles and time, equinoxes and solstices, the phases of the moon.
Cro-Magnons would have come to know Neanderthal religion and knowledge initially through secret observation during 10,000 years (or more) of co-existence. When Cro-Magnons arrived in Europe they were shocked by the knowledgeable Neanderthals, and wanted the Neanderthal magic for themselves; so, they slowly and carefully spied on Neanderthals, copied them, and in the process stole all of their knowledge and wisdom, including writing systems and rituals.
- The meeting of Classic Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons in Europe some 35,000 years ago was an immense culture shock for both parties… The two species were culturally opposite to each other in every way. At the purely psychological/cultural level,… Neanderthal dealt Cro-Magnon a culture-shock of such magnitude that its consequences are still with us today. Though it left little physical trace, there is in fact… not one aspect of our present lives, our attitudes and our institutions which does not today bear that ancient [Neanderthal] culture’s stamp.
According to Gooch, Cro-Magnon was dazzled by the religious rituals, symbolism, cosmology, and deep intimate knowledge of the natural world the Neanderthals possessed.
- Cro-Magnon took over all the ‘magic’ and ritual of Neanderthal for his own. But he took it over without any real understanding of most of it, and also with certain appropriate changes to suit his own world view, his own existing social structure, his own biological imperatives. He took over essentially empty forms, while losing the priceless content.
 Paleogeneticist Carles Lalueza-Fox discovered that modern humans and Neanderthals share a version of a gene called FOXP2, associated with language abilities. Most likely Neanderthals were able to speak their own languages, exactly as Gooch predicted. See Zach Zorich, “Should We Clone Neanderthals? The Scientific, Legal, and Ethical Obstacles”, Archaeology 63 (2) (March/ April 2010), available from www.archaeology.org/1003/etc/neanderthals.html (Accessed 6 January 2011).
 For instance, Neanderthal burials with flowers were discovered at Shanidar Cave in Northern Iraq, indicating complex mortuary rituals. See Ralph Solecki, Shanidar: The First Flower People, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1971; Owen Edwards, “Beyond Bones: A Rare Cache of Hominid Fossils Offers a Window on Neanderthal Culture”, Smithsonian (March 2010).
 See discussion in Paul Mellars, Brad Gravina, and Christopher Bronk Ramsey, “Confirmation of Neanderthal/modern human interstratification at the Chatelperronian type-site”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104 (9): 3657–3662 (27 February 2007), available from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1805566/ (Accessed 7 January 2011).
 Ann Wuyts, “Rehabilitating the Neanderthals – Accusations Uluzzian Man Took H. Sapiens Tools Prove False”, 22 September 2010, posted at heritage-key.com/blogs/ann/rehabilitating-neanderthals-accusations-uluzzian-man-took-h-sapiens-tools-prove-false (Accessed 7 January 2011); Julien Riel-Salvatore, “A Niche Construction Perspective on the Middle–Upper Paleolithic Transition in Italy”, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 17 (4), 323-355 (2010), available from www.springerlink.com/content/t6g625nx3744766x/ (Accessed 7 January 2011); Anonymous, “Neanderthals More Advanced Than Previously Thought: They Innovated, Adapted Like Modern Humans, Research Shows”, ScienceDaily (22 September 2010), posted at www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/09/100921171412.htm (Accessed 6 January 2011).
 João Zilhão, Diego E. Angelucci, Ernestina Badal-García, Francesco d’Errico, Floréal Daniel, Laure Dayet, Katerina Douka, Thomas F. G. Higham, María José Martínez-Sánchez, Ricardo Montes-Bernárdez, Sonia Murcia-Mascarós, Carmen Pérez-Sirvent, Clodoaldo Roldán-García, Marian Vanhaeren, Valentín Villaverde, Rachel Wood, and Josefina Zapata, “Symbolic use of marine shells and mineral pigments by Iberian Neandertals”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Published online before print January 11, 2010, www.pnas.org/content/early/2010/01/06/0914088107 (Accessed 7 January 2011); see also supporting material posted at www.pnas.org/content/suppl/2010/01/07/0914088107.DCSupplemental/pnas.200914088SI.pdf (Accessed 7 January 2011).
 João Zilhão [interview with], “Did Neandertals Think Like Us?”, Scientific American, June 2010, pp. 72-75 (quotation from p. 75); for online version see www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=did-neandertals-think-like-us (Accessed 6 January 2011); PDF of the article available from www.bris.ac.uk/archanth/staff/zilhao/scientificamericanjune2010.pdf (Accessed 10 January 2011).
 Gooch, The Dream Culture of the Neanderthals, 56.
 Gooch, The Neanderthal Legacy, 59, italics in the original.
 Gooch, Cities of Dreams, 5, italics in the original.
 Gooch, Cities of Dreams, 37.
The vertebrate brain includes the cerebrum and the cerebellum. In modern humans the cerebrum consists of the cerebral hemispheres that fill most of the skull. In humans the cerebellum is smaller than the cerebrum and situated at the back of the head tucked behind and under the cerebrum. Gooch points out that essentially the cerebrum and the cerebellum are two different brains (“we are each of us ‘in two minds’”) that correspond to two different ways of approaching the world (“Two Brains – and Two Universes”). The cerebrum is associated with “logical” and “rational” thinking, versus the cerebellum is associated with “dreaming” and “magic.”
- [T]he cerebellum… is responsible for trance states, for dreams, for telepathy, for psychic healing, for spontaneous wounds, for poltergeist phenomena, and all other such matters. It is also the source of and the impetus for religious belief.
Here we have the anatomical/physiological explanation for the duality of human personality. The Cro-Magnon and Neanderthal brains both consisted of larger cerebrums and smaller cerebellums, but the Neanderthal brain had a much larger and more powerful cerebellum than that found in Cro-Magnons. The more developed Neanderthal cerebellum gave rise to their “high civilisation of dreams.”
Neanderthals developed a deep understanding of the natural world, but they did not necessarily do so in the rational, logical, “scientific” manner that modern humans have come to expect and accept. “I think that they [the ancients, Neanderthals]” Gooch stated, “obtained their knowledge not logically and scientifically but intuitively.”
 Gooch, The Neanderthal Legacy, 118.
 Gooch, The Neanderthal Legacy, 118 (Chapter 11 title).
 Gooch, The Neanderthal Legacy, 131, italics in the original.
 Gooch, Cities of Dreams, 242 (Chapter 16 title).
 Gooch, The Dream Culture of the Neanderthals, 92.
The taxonomic status of Neanderthals has long been debated. Were they a species distinct from modern humans? Even if they were a distinct species, could they have interbred with our species, at least to a limited extent? Or were Neanderthals simply a subspecies or variety of our own species? Is the grouping of fossil forms currently labelled “Neanderthals” actually a collection of different types of humans, perhaps different species or varieties or races? Gooch believed there were several different varieties of Neanderthals, separated geographically and temporally, in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Furthermore, a key point of his thesis is that Neanderthals, at least some Neanderthals, could and did interbreed with our direct ancestors, the Cro-Magnons.
In recent decades it has become apparent that human diversity tens of thousands of years ago was much more complex than previously believed. Some 50,000 to 30,000 years ago, for instance, there may have been half a dozen or more distinct species of humans inhabiting Earth. Besides Cro-Magnons (archaic Homo sapiens) and Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) in Eurasia, in what is now modern Indonesia there was the diminutive “hobbit” form Homo floresiensis as well as apparently the last remnant populations of Homo erectus. In southern Africa were found the Boskop people, Homo capensis, reputedly with brains 25 to 35 percent larger than those of modern humans. In Siberia about the same time there was another population of humans, who may have been a species distinct from those listed above (though perhaps most closely related to Neanderthals), at present simply referred to as the “Denisovans.” To add to the list, the indigenous aboriginal Homo sapiens populations of Australia and New Guinea may have been relatively isolated for the last 50,000 years or more.
Leaving aside at this time the issue of the numerous other human species (how they interacted with one another, and what contributions they made to the modern human lineage, remain open questions), Gooch believed that aggressive and battle-skilled Cro-Magnons both massively exterminated some populations of Neanderthals and also interbred with them. He wrote,
- The genetic crossing of Cro-Magnon and Neanderthal produced not just (a) highly gifted individuals (‘the mighty men of old, the men of renown’) but (b) an entirely new species of human – ourselves…. [T]his new product was… either entirely or very largely due to Cro-Magnon men fertilising Neanderthal women – not the other way around. These offspring would have been accepted into Cro-Magnon groups…. And so Neanderthal genes were introduced into the Cro-Magnon gene pool…
This was a radical, unconventional view – to believe that Cro-Magnons and Neanderthals interbred and therefore Neanderthal genes should still be found among us. However, recent studies of the Neanderthal genome reveal that today an estimated 1% to 4% of the modern Eurasian genome appears to come from Neanderthals. That is, Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons must have interbred. Gooch’s ideas appear to be corroborated! (As an aside, we can also point out Gooch suggested that at least some Neanderthals may have been redheaded, another prediction since corroborated by modern science.)
Gooch also asserted that Neanderthals never fully went extinct, writing,
- [A]ctual Neanderthals at this very moment in time – that is, now, today – still survive and live at the edges of our civilisation…
Gooch cites, for instance, the research of anthropologist Myra Shackley, who tantalisingly suggests that the legendary Almas (“wildmen”) of the Caucasus and Outer Mongolia may in fact represent relict Neanderthals. In one famous account a female Almas was captured in the nineteenth century. She was described as having skin of “a grayish-black colour, covered with reddish hair, longer on her head than elsewhere… She had a large face with big cheek bones, muzzle-like prognathous jaw and large eyebrows, big white teeth and a ‘fierce expression’.” She sounds very much like a Neanderthal! First kept for some years in a stone enclosure, she later was kept in a cage, and finally in a house. She learned to obey simple orders and used branches and stones as tools. She became pregnant by her captors and while her first several infants died, she subsequently gave birth to two sons and two daughters who in turn produced children of their own via mating with other humans. This is all in line with Gooch’s hypotheses concerning Neanderthals. Note that the “primitive” state of the Almas may be because they are relict populations who have degenerated from the Neanderthal prime of 50,000 or so years ago.
 Note that in some cases well-established species can on occasion interbreed and produce fertile offspring, such as lions and tigers producing hybrids.
 Gooch considered “Rhodesian Man”, for instance, to be a Neanderthal representative (The Neanderthal Legacy, 11).
 P. Brown, T. Sutikna, M. J. Morwood, R. P. Soejono, Jatmiko, E. Wayhu Saptomo, and Rokus Awe Due, “A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia,” Nature 431, 1055-1061 (28 October 2004); available from www-personal.une.edu.au/~pbrown3/nature02999.pdf (Accessed 11 January 2011); see http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v431/n7012/full/nature02999.html (Accessed 29 July 2010).
 Mark Rose, “Homo erectus Survival”, Archaeology 50 (2) (March/April 1997), available from www.archaeology.org/9703/newsbriefs/h.erectus.html (Accessed 2 January 2011); Hillary Mayell, “Java Skull Raises Questions on Human Family Tree” (27 February 2003), posted at news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/02/0227_030227_javaskull.html (Accessed 6 January 2011); note that, as often used, Homo erectus may be a taxon that includes a collection of closely related species and subspecies.
 R. Broom, “The Evidence Afforded by the Boskop Skull of a New Species of Primitive Man (Homo capensis)”, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 23 (2): 63–79 (1918), available from digitallibrary.amnh.org/dspace/bitstream/2246/287/1/A023a02.pdf (Accessed 10 January 2011); Gary Lynch and Richard Granger, Big Brain: The Origins and Future of Human Intelligence, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008; note that there is disagreement as to whether or not Homo capensis represents a distinct species or variety.
 Anonymous, “Denisovans? Fossil Discovery Is Neither Modern Human Nor Neanderthal”, 22 December 2010, posted at www.science20.com/news_articles/denisovans_fossil_discovery_neither_modern_human_nor_neanderthal (Accessed 28 December 2010); Carl Zimmer, “Siberian Fossils Were Neanderthals’ Eastern Cousins, DNA Reveals”, New York Times, 22 December 2010, available from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/23/science/23ancestor.html (Accessed 28 December 2010).
 Hamish Clarke, “DNA confirms Aboriginal Australian origins”, Cosmos Magazine (8 May 2007), available from https://cosmosmagazine.com/life-sciences/dna-confirms-aboriginal-australian-origins (Accessed 6 January 2011).
 Gooch, The Neanderthal Legacy, 72, italics in the original.
 Richard E. Green, Johannes Krause, Adrian W. Briggs, Tomislav Maricic, Udo Stenzel, Martin Kircher, Nick Patterson, Heng Li, Weiwei Zhai, Markus Hsi-Yang Fritz, Nancy F. Hansen, Eric Y. Durand, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Jeffrey D. Jensen, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Can Alkan, Kay Prüfer, Matthias Meyer, Hernán A. Burbano, Jeffrey M. Good, Rigo Schultz, Ayinuer Aximu-Petri, Anne Butthof, Barbara Höber, Barbara Höffner, Madlen Siegemund, Antje Weihmann, Chad Nusbaum, Eric S. Lander, Carsten Russ, Nathaniel Novod, Jason Affourtit, Michael Egholm, Christine Verna, Pavao Rudan, Dejana Brajkovic, Zeljko Kucan, Ivan Gušic, Vladimir B. Doronichev, Liubov V. Golovanova, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Marco de la Rasilla, Javier Fortea, Antonio Rosas, Ralf W. Schmitz, Philip L. F. Johnson, Evan E. Eichler, Daniel Falush, Ewan Birney, James C. Mullikin, Montgomery Slatkin, Rasmus Nielsen, Janet Kelso, Michael Lachmann, David Reich, and Svante Pääbo, “A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome,” Science 328 (5979), 710-722 (7 May 2010), available from www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/328/5979/710.pdf (Accessed 7 January 2011); Paul Rincon, “Neanderthal genes ‘survive in us’ ”, BBC News (6 May 2010), posted at news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8660940.stm (Accessed 6 January 2011).
 Paul Rincon, “Neanderthals ‘were flame-haired’ ”, BBC News (25 October 2007), posted at news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7062415.stm (Accessed 7 January 2011); Anonymous, “Ancient DNA Reveals That Some Neanderthals Were Redheads”, ScienceDaily (26 October 2010), posted at www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/10/071025143311.htm (Accessed 7 January 2011).
 Gooch, The Neanderthal Legacy, 33, italics in the original.
 Myra Shackley, Still Living? Yeti, Sasquatch and the Neanderthal Enigma, New York: Thames and Hudson, 1983 [Paperback edition, 1986], 161-164.
 Shackley, Still Living?, 112; this particular Almas, also referred to as an abnauayu, was named Zana and she is further described in: Igor Bourtsev, “A Skeleton Still Buried and a Skull Unearthed: The Story of Zana” (From: In the Footsteps of the Russian Snowman by Dmitri Bayanov, 1996, Moscow, Russia: Crypto-Logos, pp. 46-52), available from www.bigfootencounters.com/articles/zana.htm (Accessed 10 January 2011).
The Neanderthals left us a lasting legacy, one that remains an undercurrent of modern human psychology, society, and culture. It is important, even critical, to understand this Neanderthal legacy – and the work of Stan Gooch may provide the fundamental key to unlocking the secrets of the Neanderthals.
We are personally further exploring, testing, and developing Gooch’s ideas concerning Neanderthal culture, including through first-hand study of the evidence, such as sites visited and used by Neanderthals. Thus during the summer of 2010 we mounted a small expedition to Neanderthal territory, including caves where Neanderthal remains have been found, in the Bucegi Mountains region of Romania. Rather than hypothetically reconstruct Neanderthal lifestyles and modes of thinking purely intellectually, our aim is to actually experience (as much as possible) what it was like to have been a Neanderthal. Future potential research includes attempting to reconstruct Neanderthal rituals and cave usage, for instance. This may be a tall order, but we are sanguine about the prospects.
We will close with a final tantalising note on the life and death of Stan Gooch. At the end of his last book, Gooch writes
- The number thirteen figures centrally in my work because it is the most important number of the moon religion [according to Gooch, the religion of the Neanderthals]. And it just so happens that I was born on June 13 . And the day, it just so happens, was a Monday. And Monday is, of course, Moon Day.
Gooch died on 13 September 2010, which also just happened to be a Moon Day. “Well, well, well…” (as Gooch himself might have written).
"Forces of the Unconscious Mind: Exploring the Work of Stan Gooch" by Louis Proud at New Dawn Magazine.
Stan Gooch’s “Cities of Dreams” at Cassiopaean Experiment.
 Gooch, The Neanderthal Legacy, 132.
 Gooch’s last three closing words (before the appendices) of The Neanderthal Legacy (page 132). Besides his work on Neanderthals, Gooch made other contributions to the study of ancient history, such as his quite rational suggestion that the ancients could have figured out, based on its approximately 50-year “wobble” (and possibly using simple lenses), that Sirius has a small, dark, heavy companion star (The Dream Culture of the Neanderthals, 227-240). This information was passed down, for instance to the Dogon tribe of Africa, and despite various sensational claims (see Robert Temple, The Sirius Mystery: New Scientific Evidence of Alien Contact 5,000 Years Ago, Rochester, Vermont: Destiny Books, 1998; see also Blair MacKenzie Blake, “Dark Seed: The ABCs of the Sirius Mystery”, Darklore 5, 117-133 ) no alien contact was required.
OANA R. GHIOCEL received an M.A. in Documentary and Audio Production from Emerson College and she holds previous degrees in screenwriting and filmmaking. Born in Bucharest, Romania, she is an award-winning media producer, consultant, and screenwriter, and currently the Vice-President of Hyperion Media Inc. She has done extensive research on Neanderthals and currently is producing a feature-length documentary on the Neanderthal legacy in the Bucegi Mountains of Romania. The documentary includes a presentation and discussion of Stan Gooch’s work on Neanderthals and features on-site research by Dr. Robert M. Schoch in the Bucegi Mountains. The film is expected to be completed in spring/summer 2011, and will be featured in festivals and on television after that.
ROBERT M. SCHOCH received a Ph.D. in Geology and Geophysics from Yale University, and since 1984 has been a full-time faculty member at the College of General Studies of Boston University. His books include the trilogy with R. A. McNally: Voices of the Rocks, Voyages of the Pyramid Builders, and Pyramid Quest. His most recent book is The Parapsychology Revolution: A Concise Anthology of Paranormal and Psychical Research (Compilation and Commentary by Robert M. Schoch and Logan Yonavjak, Tarcher/Penguin, 2008). Dr. Schoch’s personal website is located at: www.robertschoch.com.
Cities of Dreams (subtitle on the cover of the 2001 paperback edition: When Women Ruled the Earth), London, Rider/Century Hutchinson, 1989; London, Aulis Publishers, revised and augmented edition, 1995, reprinted 2001.
A Fascinating Exploration of Humanity's Forgotten Ancestors.
Neanderthal man created a civilisation tens of thousands of years ago. This was not a civilisation of industry and high technology, but a complex society of the mind and spirit that survives today in the myths and beliefs, the values and behaviour of every man, woman, and child alive.
Stan Gooch reveals, in fascinating detail and with painstaking scholarship, how the highly-evolved culture of the Neanderthals has survived through the ages in all corners of the world; even, and most amazingly, our own.
“With this his latest book Stan Gooch may be ready to rejoin the academic establishment as an innovator whose originality can no longer be ignored. Cities of Dreams proves than far from being an eccentric maverick Gooch is one of the most formidable and consistent thinkers alive today, and that his own manifest belief in the importance of his work is totally justified.” - Colin Wilson, Literary Review
From: Brent Logan
Gooch culminates his pursuit of Neanderthal culture and biology – as well as their effects on our lives today – in this comprehensive volume. There is no way that the richness and scope of his narrative can be summarized here, so a sampling follows
For example, Christianity is a direct descendant – a garbled but also deliberate encoding – of the Neanderthal moon religion. Thus the date of Easter, the festival of Christ's death and resurrection, is determined each year by the lunar cycle – why Easter is a moveable feast. Christ dies on the cross – symbol for the moon in all pre-Christian cultures. He dies on a Friday (the 13th), Freija's day – and she is the moon goddess. His death takes place at the beginning of the Jewish sabbath – the Hebrew name for the (originally monthly) festival of menstruation for the moon goddess. Christ and his 12 disciples constitute a coven of 13. But there is only one such number found in nature, the 13 full moons and new moons occurring in each alternate year – in response to which women respectively ovulate, conceive, and menstruate.
Others in this numerical lineage of covens are Robin Hood and the 12 merry men, as well as King Arthur and his 12 knights. Hence the stories of Christ, Robin Hood, King Arthur – along with many others, including Sleeping Beauty, and the Death of Balder – are all in essence and origin one. The ballads tell us that Robin dies after being bled to death by an evil priestess. Robin is the commonest name for a witch's familiar throughout Britain, and also slang for the penis (from robinet, a tap or faucet). Hood itself is a reference to Neanderthal's traditional headgear, as can be deduced from the venerable Haxey Hood game, and numerous other sources. (Incidentally, King Arthur's “round table” is a 13-zodiac, while the two oldest stone zodiacs ever found, one in Israel and the other North American, are also of this configuration.)
What is the story that we are discussing? The Neanderthal lunar religion, has the moon sacrificing the sun on the last day of the year, then graciously resurrecting it so that life on Earth may continue. In the actual ceremony, the “King for a Year” is killed by having his genitalia cut off – to turn him into a menstruating woman (cf. the “spear” in Christ's side, and the “spear through both thighs” of the Fisher King). The genitals are then eaten and the blood drunk – hence the same acts symbolized in the Christian Eucharist.
On the biological side it is rather obvious that contemporary humans have inherited two conflicting sets of instincts, formed during the very different pasts of Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon – precisely what transpires when widely contrasting animal species are crossed in the laboratory. Neanderthal was sexually promiscuous in the extreme, including homosexuality, lesbianism, and what is today called child abuse. But Cro-Magnon had evolved pair-bonding, with one partner for life. And this is the reason we long for everlasting love “forsaking all others,” while at the same time eagerly pursue “one-night stands.”
One of the further results of our hybrid nature remains at the social level, where left and right-wing politics vie – with no other explanation for this universal polarity. Thus the Nazis, Ku Klux Klan, and “ethnic cleansing” arise from the instinctive Cro-Magnon attempt to destroy its equally innate Neanderthal rival... in the “final solution.” The French and Russian Revolutions as well as various anticapitalist movements are efforts by the Neanderthal to obliterate the CroMagnon aspect. So Communists, Socialists, and Democrats reflect the Neanderthal strain, whereas Fascists, Conservatives, and Republicans evoke their Cro-Magnon anthesis. Of course, we are all simultaneously both, therefore the contrived solutions never endure . . .
These are but a few features from Cities of Dreams' vast thoughtscape.
The Dream Culture of the Neanderthals: Guardians of the Ancient Wisdom, Inner Traditions, 2006.
From: AULIS Online
The Dream Culture of the Neanderthals explores the influence of Neanderthal man on the cultural and biological development of humanity. It traces the power of long-held beliefs and superstitions to the influence of Neanderthal lunar and dream-based traditions. This work offers a compelling vision of a unified humanity that can benefit from the gifts of both its Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon ancestors.
The Dream Culture of the Neanderthals provides evidence that direct descendants of the Neanderthal race may still be alive in Central Asia. A number of long-standing beliefs and superstitions show how the ideas that dominated the lives of our ancestors still have a powerful influence on us today.
The disturbing power attributed to the number thirteen, the positive influence of the number seven, and the comfort offered by the admonition “knock wood” all reveal the enduring presence of our most ancient ancestors: the Neanderthals. Contrary to current theories, Stan Gooch maintains that the Neanderthals were not destroyed by the younger Cro-Magnon culture but were incorporated into that culture through interbreeding.
The blending of the disparate influences of the lunar, matriarchal-based Neanderthals and the solar, patriarchal Cro-Magnons may explain the contradictory impulses and influences that have generated human conflict for millennia. In fact, the author suggests that the caste system in India may have been constructed to utilize the strengths of both lunar and solar cultures and to minimize the conflict between the two.
There is evidence that direct descendents of the moon-worshipping, dream-cultivating Neanderthal race are still living in Central Asia today. While their physical descendants may be almost extinct, the influence of Neanderthal occult wisdom remains strong and can be found throughout history among witches, kabbalists, the Knights Templar, Rosicrucians, and even in Christianity.
Review by Lee Prosser
Stan Gooch is an original thinker and it is evident in this solidly researched book. Gooch's research on paranormal influences is breathtaking in scope. The fifteen chapters in the book offer a wide range of information. For instance, Thirteen and the Horned God, Standing Stones, The Holy Grail, The Land of Women, Scrying, and The Christ are among the many exciting chapters.
The Land of Women gives an interesting analysis of the ancient Celts and their women, and goddesses. The insight on communications is remarkable. Gooch makes a defined observation that is based on fact: The Neanderthals were not destroyed by the younger Cro-Magon culture but were simply incorporated into that culture through the process of interbreeding.
This blended the important aspects of both cultures into a workable situation which could be openly shared by both cultures. That this influence can be traced down into the history found among Witches, Kabbalists, the Knights Templar, Rosicrucians, Christianity and Judaism, is a historical discovery that should be considered for its wide-ranging consequences.
Gooch points out that direct descendents of the moon-worshiping Neanderthal are still living in Central Asia today, although they do not physically resemble their ancestors. This influence of Neanderthal occult wisdom remains strong.
Readers will find this a welcome and enjoyable reading challenge, a book to savor for its historical points, possibilities, and truths. Gooch has written an in-depth look at an important subject. Stan Gooch lives in Wales, and is the author of Cities of Dreams Aulis Publishers.
The Neanderthal Legacy: Reawakening Our Genetic and Cultural Origins, Inner Traditions, 2008.
From the Back Cover
In The Neanderthal Legacy, eminent psychologist and paranormal researcher Stan Gooch brings together the wide-ranging investigative strands of his lifetime of study of the human brain. One of the world’s leading experts on the influence of the Neanderthals on the cultural and biological development of humanity, Gooch contends that the Neanderthals’ enlarged cerebellum was a source of deep connection with the psychic and dream worlds, which remains extant in modern humans in paranormal phenomena that conventional science cannot explain.
Gooch offers scientific evidence of the crossbreeding between Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons that is responsible for the dichotomous nature of our feelings, thoughts, impressions, beliefs, and even our cultural mores and politics. The hybrid vigor produced by this mating has gifted modern humans with abilities and sensibilities that the scientific establishment and conventional educational system entirely ignore. Gooch calls for recognition and acceptance of the dominance of our genetic makeup in determining all our behaviors and traits. Only by embracing this understanding of our essential nature will we be able to achieve any degree of peace and unity in the face of the diametrically opposed instincts of our genetic heritage.
The Origins of Psychic Phenomena: Poltergeists, Incubi, Succubi, and the Unconscious Mind, Inner Traditions, 2007.
From: AULIS Online
The Origins of Psychic Phenomena examines unexplained phenomena in psychiatric and psychological terms rather than occult terms.
- Explores how the unconscious mind manifests paranormal phenomena.
- Shows how the cerebellum – the seat of the unconscious – is the source of these energies, subpersonalities, and manifestations.
- Identifies our neglected 'Neanderthal' subconscious as responsible for the rising incidence of paranormal happenings.
Alien abduction, poltergeist attacks, incubi, succubi, split and multiple personalities, possessions, precognition, spontaneous combustion – the list of phenomena not just unexplained but ignored by mainstream science seems endless. Yet the key to the origin of all these manifestations lies deep within our own brains.
In The Origins of Psychic Phenomena, Stan Gooch explores the functioning of the dream-producing part of the brain – the cerebellum – and how the unconscious mind is able to externalize itself. The cerebellum is the physical seat of the unconscious and was once equal to or even superior to the cerebrum as essential to our functioning. In modern times it has been shunted into the subliminal, yet the cerebellum continues to process our worldly experiences and reveals its concerns in misunderstood, often frightening, manifestations.
Gooch explains that Neanderthal Man possessed a much larger cerebellum than Cro-Magnon Man and posits that the modern repression of the cerebellum’s role in our consciousness has given rise to these supernatural phenomena.
Review: By lulu.com/ladyfogg
When you start reading this book you arc dazzled with stories that might make you want to turn on the lights. The accounts of events are fascinating for anyone who has dabbled in this subject. For a novice, it would be an initiation into this world of psychic phenomena.
The author first takes you into the lives of people afflicted with strange happenings. You explore the various beings, such as succubi, incubi, and other manifestations. You also are given lessons in psychology that may prove useful as you continue your read. Multiple personality as well as various psychosis are discussed and how they fit into this supernatural world.
Regardless of whether you agree with the author's conclusions, you will find that there is some very intriguing information contained in this book. The bibliography alone is worth the price of the book to anyone doing this kind of research.
For the person interested in the supernatural or anyone interested in the human psyche, this book will give you much food for thought. Draw your own conclusions, but definitely take a peek at the information contained therein.
Praise for The Origins of Psychic Phenomena
“The Origins of Psychic Phenomena is an interesting read no matter where you stand on belief in extraordinary phenomena. The field remains fraught with mysteries, especially those dealing with succubi and incubi.” – Fred Alan Wolf, Ph.D., author of The Spiritual Universe
"…validates the reality of psychic phenomena, while at the same time affirming the depth of the individual psyche – the House of the Soul." – Parallel Perspectives, April 2007
“If you are looking to have a much better understanding of some of the most difficult and obscure areas of the human psyche and how the unconscious makes sense of the world we live in, then pick up a copy of Origins.” – Mark Stavish, Institute for Hermetic Studies, April 2007
"…covers a wide variety of phenomena beyond those listed in the title … excellent arguments and rationale." – D. Tigermoon, The Pagan Review, Oct 2007
"If you are looking for something unusual about the origins of psychic phenomena, poltergeists, incubi, succubi, and the subject of the unconscious mind, then Stan Gooch's well-written book is for you." – Lee Prosser, Ghostvillage.com, May 2007
"…will not only make us more receptive to these cerebellar communiques but also encourage us to derive benefit from them in the form of increased awareness, heightened intuition, and psychological equilibrium." – Jay Beldo, Mysteries, Issue 22, Nov/Dec 2008
The Paranormal, Harper and Row, 1978.
A Scholarly Investigation Into the Unknown
Do psychic phenomena really exist? Is there a world beyond that described by our normal senses? And what is the value of objective science in uncovering the mysteries of such a world? A psychologist attempts to explain the workings of the psychic universe in this fascinating and clearly-written volume that includes material on dreams, telephathy, psychic healing, divination, and much more.
Stan Gooch has spent many years making a personal study of psychic phenomena as it relates to events in his life and the lives of others. In the course of his explorations, applying his knowledge of psychology and a careful and scholarly attitude, he has emerged with a picture of the world of the psychic that gives credence to some phenomena and denies the plausibility of others. A thoughtful and exciting book that sheds light in places it has been much needed.
“A book that even the sceptic can read with enjoyment and profit - not just for the converted.” -British Journal of Psychology
“To his credit Gooch insists upon approaching the paranormal on its own terms - terms radically different from those proposed by investigation of the orthodox sciences. But the primary value of Gooch's vision lies in his ability to advance and inspire the reader.” -Singularities
“An original and exciting book by a brilliant writer.” -Robert Temple
“Stan Gooch is a splendid advocate of the open-minded approach to the world lying beyond our ordinary senses.” - Manchester Evening News
From: Brent Logan
Gooch divulges that in his mid-twenties and prior to obtaining a degree in psychology, he trained as a medium and developed remarkable paranormal abilities (in the early 1980s Gooch appeared several times on Granada television where he successfully transmitted telepathic images to the viewing audience – the switchboards in Manchester and Liverpool were jammed for the rest of the day). The first part of the book concerns his own paranormal experiences and those of acquaintances, but the rest presents a groundbreaking general theory of the paranormal.
The Neanderthal Question, Wildwood House, 1977.
From: Brent Logan
In this book Gooch begins his detailed examination of the culture and evolutionary backgrounds of our two ancestors, Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon man. While the genetic crossbreeding of Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon has implacably been denied by the scientific community, by 2001 that establishment was at last forced to admit that we are indeed a genetic hybrid between the two species. However, Gooch's claim that not just modern psychology but our present society owes a strong debt to Neanderthal culture (see Cities of Dreams) is still hotly contested by conventional science.
Gooch further proposes that Cro-Magnon evolved not in Africa but in the Far East, not emerging from Africa some 200,000 years ago, but entering it about that time.
“The most gripping part of his work deals with Cro-Magnon and Neanderthal man. He writes as if he had just come from a television interview with several." – Time Out
“All Stan Gooch's books are infused with his amazing thinking. They are a force for good. I have read them with delight.” – Brian Aldiss
Personality and Evolution, Wildwood House, 1973.
From: Brent Logan
Continues Gooch's deep exploration into human consciousness and of the meaning and purpose of the process behind evolution. This book was made Choice of the Year in the Sunday Times, London.
“An abstract does no justice to the richness of material, live writing and exceptionally clear thinking which Stan Gooch commands.” – Jacquetta Hawkes, Sunday Times
“We cannot but admire Stan Gooch's massive and challenging endeavor.” – Los Angeles Times
Total Man: An Evolutionary Theory of Personality, London, Allen Lane/Penguin Press, 1972; New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1973; New York, Ballantine, 1974; London, Abacus, 1975
An epic voyage (180,000 words, 530 pages) through the duality of mankind in every sphere and at all levels – literature, psychology, evolution, linguistics, community – demonstrating its crucial significance for every individual. Following publication, Gooch received an entry in Who's Who in the World.
"Drawing on literature and legend, on science fiction, mythology, history, physiology, psychology, linguistics, and art, British psychologist Stan Gooch has written a daring new interpretation of the human psyche. Total Man, which contains what may be the best defense of the I Ching as a way of knowledge since Carl Jung, presents a rare attempt at providing a complete system of thought aimed at fostering the evolution of a 'new consciousness.'” – Publishers Weekly
“An extraordinary study. His vision of duality is arresting and his exploration will fascinate layman and scholar alike – never dull.” – Library Journal
“One of the most exciting and original thinkers to appear in many years.” – Books and Bookmen
“…a good book, written with clarity, and full of fascinating stuff on human evolution, psychology, politics, and culture…his brilliance is undeniable…” - Colin Wilson
“…well-written and always stimulating... a three-dimensional approach which can contain the seemingly paradoxical nature of today's man… -The Los Angeles Times
From Amazon, reviewed by S. Chelydra
Gooch found a key that unlocks many mysteries about who we are.
This is quite simply the most significant and useful book I've ever read. Gooch has discovered how our inner conflicts are rooted in the divided structure of the nervous system. These conflicts are expressed collectively through literature, myths, ideology – often involving dread of dark demonic possession, as in Faust and Jeckyll & Hyde, or through fearful awe of superior bright beings such as angels or highly-evolved aliens. This happens when consciousness (sense of oneself) inhabits one part of the nervous system and regards the other part as a stranger.
It's arguably the most underrated book of all time. The timing of its publication was unfortunate. The rather similar (but far less significant) notion of left-right brain divisions came out around the same time, as did the bestselling sexual self-help book, "Total Woman".
Many mysteries of human beliefs and behaviour make complete sense for the first time. Gooch is more down-to-earth, hence more scientific, than Freud, Jung, Reich, or Fromm. Far more coherently, comprehensively, and convincingly than any other psychologist, he seeks and finds the material (neurological) foundations of our inner lives. He goes on to show how our individual internal conflicts are expressed in our collective ideology and mythology, and how we attempt to resolve these conflicts through racism, sexism, and mass violence. His emphasis is on the specific psychology of Northern Europeans, who seem to be haunted and driven more than others by these inner contradictions.
The story unfolds chapter by chapter, gradually weaving together several seemingly unrelated narratives into a shockingly coherent and convincing whole. Any summary will therefore be a "spoiler".
It is imperfect. I'm not sure if any of the people I've urged to read this book got beyond a couple of pages. It takes a little patience to get into it. Gooch is not a particularly good writer, nor a great genius. He seems to be a regular guy who happened upon a phenomenally credible "crackpot theory". There are a couple of minor flaws how he applies his ideas; for instance, he makes pronouncements about the psychology of women and communists that indicate he hasn't had quite enough experience with either.
But the ideas themselves are astounding. To say they ring true is an understatement.
Better night vision, more vegetarianism: Stan Gooch’s Total Man
In the first in a new series of blogs, writer and journalist Sarah Lester investigates the strange story behind paranormal researcher Stan Gooch and his magnus opus Total Man.
- The mark of greatness is always intuition, not logic. – Colin Wilson World
Towards the end of his life the psychologist and paranormal researcher Stan Gooch lived in isolation and poverty in a rented caravan in Swansea. Hailed as a pioneering visionary and criminally underrated writer by a smattering of followers – including high-profile, outsider philosopher Colin Wilson – the rest of the world pretty much ignored him. He became increasingly disillusioned and carried his grievances about his work’s peripheral status to his deathbed. And, perhaps, beyond.
Gooch gave up a successful academic career in child psychology to embark on an eleven-book, half century-long odyssey of oddness. In part, Gooch’s change in direction can be attributed to a cave man figure which he sensed in the corner of a room during one of his early extra-sensory experiments. If nothing else Gooch’s life story can be taken as a cautionary tale about the perils of straying outside the accepted guidelines of modern science. As Noel Rooney states in the Fortean Times obituary: ‘Gooch’s life and career constitute a grim reminder of what can befall those who venture from academically safe topics into the wilderness of damned data.’ [FT727, March 2011].
If Gooch is remembered in any way, it will be as the proponent of hybrid origin theory – an original concept which posited that interbreeding between Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons explained the roots of all conflict and even the dual nature of human culture itself. Naturally this division extended to politics too, and Gooch insisted that left-wing movements were expressions of our Neanderthal instincts, whilst right-wing movements were Cro-Magnon-driven.
Should you need any help identifying left-leaning types here’s a list of traits – compiled by Gooch – to look out for. When compared to members of the Conservative party, they show:
- higher incidence of left-handedness
- shorter average height
- greater incidence of big toe being shorter than the other toes
- less male pattern baldness (it’s a fact that left-handed men almost never go bald)
- better night vision
- more short-sightedness
- more vegetarianism
- more sexual activity and promiscuity
- more lesbianism, homosexuality and pædophilia
- greater incidence of the pyknic body type
- greater incidence of the recessive chin and sloping forehead
- more time spent dreaming when asleep
- a larger cerebellum
- (Source: Fortean Times)
[Disclaimer: Whilst the above list may offend for various reasons, as a short, left-handed vegetarian, I’d like to point out that Gooch actually saw Neanderthal instincts as desirable.]
Ironically, just weeks before Gooch’s death, discoveries were made by geneticists which proved that up to four per cent of the human genome is Neanderthal. To nobody’s surprise Gooch’s theory was not mentioned in conjunction with any scientific reports on this breakthrough. Nature magazine doubtlessly found aspects of Gooch’s work a tad too speculative to endorse.
For poet Hannah Silva, who salvaged Gooch’s book Total Man from her university library’s reject pile, it was exactly the strange mixture of the orthodox and the damned that has compelled her to use Gooch’s writing in a new performance for Electronic Voice Phenomena. With a strong emphasis on intuition over logic and innumerable leaps of faith Hannah recognised that the book was brimming with potential. Especially when combined with Gooch’s claim that he was able to enter into a full trance or produce automatic writing at will, in any place, in any circumstances.
In the opening chapter of The Paranormal, Gooch describes how as a 26 year-old he discovered a previously untapped gift as a medium. The experience, he says, reached such levels of intensity that it was as if a dam or barrier had suddenly collapsed. This new found flow provided what Gooch termed a ‘gateway to wonders’. Similarly, as Hannah loops and piles up ideas, words and sounds that relate to Gooch’s life and work for her performance, she will create her own portal through which to experiment with a form of communication that exists beyond the conventions of language. She originally used Total Man to create a short cut-up poem about being left-handed. Now she has been drawn back to Gooch’s work and the gateway is wide open.
As part of her research Hannah has been in touch with Dr. Brent Logan, who had a long correspondence with Gooch in the later part of his life. Dr. Logan said of his correspondent:
- Stan’s letters reveal to me how early his doldrums descended yet he indulged them – in equilibrous frisson – for decades, a grim balance or existential challenge between that unique Neanderthal awareness versus the trailer park terminus so long inhabited… pathetic, grousing, but crankily heroic, a bleak nobility.
Gooch refused repeated offers from people who wanted to buy him a computer and turned down valuable introductions to major players in the field of radical anthropology. He stubbornly insisted the only thing that would lift him out of hard times was a dramatic change of situation, or major stimulus (such as a Nobel Prize!). When Gooch died on Monday 13th September 2010 he was distinctly lacking in accolades. Still, even in death, he was able to vindicate his belief that Monday 13th held potent psychic significance.
From: Brent Logan
An astonishing collection of fully authenticated accounts of the human mind's power over both the body and environment around it. For example: the woman experiencing appendicitis who under hypnosis removed a piece of bone from her appendix, passed it through her intestines, and excreted it; a sufferer from multiple disseminated tuberculosis and on the point of death, who totally recovered in a few hours at the shrine of Lourdes – the medical examination then showing no trace of the disease; a policeman who, following a cycling accident, developed paralysis, blindness, and many other physical defects, all of which were duplicated by his dog lying under the bed (as confirmed by a veterinarian) – both dying at the same moment.
“Gooch boldly recalls our attention to the fact that man – in nature, society, history – is such a many-sided being; that to lose this vision is to place ourselves in real peril – that we must put into proper perspective the recent 'authority' of science.” – New Humanist
“Like yourself, I have been trying to make sense of experiences that are consistently devalued by mainstream science. Your admirable summaries have given me the courage to take some steps forward.” – Peter Redgrove
“A wealth of examples – fascinating case after fascinating case – both intriguing and impressive. – Dumfries and Galloway Express
From: Brent Logan
This volume is firstly notable for its rejection of Roger Sperry's “split-brain” theory concerning the cerebrum's hemispheres (for which Sperry received a Nobel prize, and which took the academic and public worlds by storm) as fundamentally flawed, in fact, Gooch was the only voice in the scientific community to denounce Sperry's idea; then, in the year 2000 – two decades after Gooch's objection – this same establishment announced that the split-brain thesis had been abandoned.
As an alternative, Gooch continues to develop his view that it is the cerebellum – at the rear of our heads – which is responsible for dreaming, trance states, creativity, paranormal experiences, and much more.
“This important book will surely provoke wide-ranging debate.” – Science of Thought Review
“Relentlessly original.” – Stanley Krippner
From: Brent Logan
Further information from Stan Gooch's own episodes with the paranormal in later life, and those of individuals known personally to him – such as Trudie Styler, wife of the pop star Sting (in the book referred to as “Sandy”), who underwent an incubus attack.
Gooch now states categorically that all alternative experiences arise from the cerebellum: poltergeists, incubus and succubus assaults, memories of past lives, multiple personality, split personality, alien visitations and abductions, hypnosis, dreaming, the unconscious mind, automatic writing, mediumistic possession, miracle cures, precognition and postcognition, hypnotic regression, telepathy, clairvoyance, clinical neurosis, and so on. Further, women have a larger cerebellum than men, and in his view this is why women hypnotize faster, and experience more dreaming, multiple personality, paranormal events, etc.
He underscores the fact – long accepted in the relevant sciences – that a direct reptilian ancestor of ours had two pairs of eyes: one atop the head and linked to the cerebellum, the other set in front and connected to the cerebrum. At that time the cerebellum was the dominant of the two brain organs, but over time the cerebrum took command. The eyes on the upper head fused, and sank down into the brain to form the pineal gland – mysticism's “third eye,” as it was called by Hindus 3000 years ago, who of course had no knowledge of conventional evolution.
Although being overthrown, the cerebellum continued its own development to the present. Despite a deceptively smaller size, due to deep convolutions the cerebellum has in fact a surface area – or cortex – 75 percent as great as that of the apparently much larger cerebrum. And from many points of view the cerebellum is not the next highest developed brain organ on our planet, but the premier feature. Thus the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum can form as many as 100,000 connections with other fiber bodies, whereas a normal figure for cells in the cerebrum is 1000 connections; there are also more cells in the granular layer of the cerebellum cortex than in brain's entire remainder.
Yet the cerebellum is virtually excluded from all university textbooks on psychology and physiological psychology; typically it receives a dozen pages in volumes nearly a thousand pages long. Moreover, Neanderthal man possessed a considerably larger cerebellum than Cro-Magnon. …
“What an interesting, crowded, maddening whirlwind of a book.” – Renée Haynes, The Tablet
“The evidence presented is curiously compelling and the book well worth reading.” – Irish Independent
“Frighteningly well argued.” – Times Educational Supplement
“Gooch presents a legion of bizarre happenings, crying out to be called incredible – except that they are witnessed, documented, authenticated. The book is startling enough to upstage Stephen King and makes horror comics seem pedestrian.” – Daily Mail
From: AULIS Online
It has seemed to me for many years that Stan Gooch is one of the most underrated writers of our time. The reasons are complex, but obviously connected with the fact that he began life as a respectable academic, a research psychologist whose first work was a textbook on child psychology.
Under normal circumstances, he would have continued to write textbooks and become a member of the British academic establishment. But in 1958, when he was 26, he had an experience that was to change the direction of his life. A schoolteacher in Coventry at the time, he was invited to a 'seance' in the home of a friend. He went out of curiosity.
But as he sat in an ordinary hardback chair, facing the 'medium' he experienced a sense of light-headedness, then a rushing sensation, as if the room was full of a great wind, and he heard a noise like roaring waters. He felt as if a barrier had collapsed and became unconscious. When he came to, he was told that he had entered a trance state, and that several 'entities' had spoken through his mouth, including a cousin who had died in the war.
At one of these seances, everyone became aware of an ape-like creature crouched in the corner of the room, a 'cave man', which soon faded away. Gooch later came to suspect that he had seen a 'Neanderthal.'
In spite of these bizarre spare-time activities, he proceeded with his academic career, became a senior research psychologist at the National Children's Bureau in 1964, and wrote his textbook. But he also wrote a novel and short stories, and a chance meeting with a director of Penguin Books led to a commission for Total Man (1972).
This was a remarkable work. On the surface it was a fascinating combination of literary criticism and 'depth psychology'. Arguing from works like Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, he suggested that man is a dual being, consisting of a rational ego, and a darker more instinctive being, which he calls the 'Self'. So far this sounds like fairly orthodox Freudian (or Jungian) psychology – Gooch had first been excited by the mysteries of psychology as a result of reading Karen Horney in his teens.
But it is soon obvious that his involvement with his ideas is on a deeper, more personal level, than with most psychologists. He regards the 'Self', which inhabits the 'old brain', as the source of legends about vampires, troglodytes, demons and other creatures from the world of the 'occult'. Clearly, his experience of mediumship has made him aware of the unconscious as a mysterious realm of strange, dark forces. He argues that the unconscious mind is located in the part of the brain called the cerebellum.
Total Man was bold and imaginative, but was clearly the work of a scientist; it seemed to promise that Gooch would become, like RD Laing, one of the gurus of the 1970s. (Publisher's Weekly compared him with Jung.) His next book, Personality and Evolution, subtitled The Biology of the Divided Self, reinforced that expectation. It is partly an attack on Darwinism and the notion of evolution by survival of the fittest. But Gooch points out that ice ages may occur so abruptly that there would be no time for natural selection.
He goes on to look at the work of Tinbergen on 'releasers' – stimuli that release certain instincts, like a mother's reaction to a baby, or a man's to a girl taking her clothes off. Tinbergen discovered that some creatures prefer 'bigger than normal releasers' that seem oddly illogical but which suggest inner-freedom to develop responses to situations that have not yet arisen.
Gooch is suggesting that there is an element of choice that must have sounded to orthodox Darwinians dangerously like the Lamarckian heresy. But then, Arthur Koestler and many others were also attacking orthodox Darwinism at the time, and Gooch might have been a maverick, but he was part of a non-orthodox mainstream, and there was every reason to expect him to achieve his own kind of respectability.
What happened was that his next book, The Neanderthal Question (1977) appeared to make a disconcerting sideways leap into another field. In fact the book was a logical development of his interest in man's 'two selves'. He had come to believe that Neanderthal man was not exterminated by Cro-Magnon about forty thousand years ago, but that he was 'bred' out of separate existence by interbreeding with Cro-Magnon. We are the result of this combination, with Cro-Magnon characteristics predominating. Critics found the arguments of The Neanderthal Question a little too bold and strange, although I, as an admirer of Gooch's work, regarded it as an exciting new departure that was firmly based on his past preoccupations.
I was even more excited by his next book The Paranormal (1978) in which he begins by describing in detail his experiences as a medium and he goes on to produce a classic study of the whole realm of paranormal experience. This is the book of his to which I most refer. Yet I am also able to see that, to many critics, it must have seemed that Gooch had abandoned the scientific and academic approach of Total Man and Personality and Evolution, and plunged into what Freud called 'the black tide of occultism'.
The title of his next book, Guardians of the Ancient Wisdom (1979) must have confirmed their worst fears. In fact the book is an important backward-look over his past work and an attempt to advance cautiously into the realm of the 'lunar' being, the 'Self'.
In his next book The Double Helix of the Mind (1980) he takes up the cudgel against the split-brain theorists – those who believe that the difference between the left and right cerebral hemispheres is also the difference between the conscious and the unconscious mind. I can see why he felt it so necessary to write it, for it must have seemed to him that all the publicity given to Sperry and spilt brain physiology in the 1970s appeared to undermine his own basic theory, in which the source of the unconscious is the cerebellum, not the right brain. I felt so myself when I first read Robert Ornstein on the split brain.
Now I see that, in fact, it makes no difference whatsoever to the arguments of Total Man and its successors. The right and left distinction is convenient, but it is certainly not the whole truth. At the time I felt that The Double Helix of the Mind was a rearguard action against Sperry, Ornstein and the rest; re-reading it years later, I was struck by how far an advance it is on his previous work in discussing the 'dark realm' of the Self, and how powerfully he carries forward his argument.
I found his next two books, The Secret Life of Humans (1981) and Creatures from Inner Space (1984) his most fascinating since The Paranormal. The first covering a broad spectrum of oddities, from UFOs and astrology to reincarnation; the second dealing more fully than in any of his previous works, with the realm of the unconscious and with problems such as 'demonic possession' and multiple personality.
These two books made clear what was already very obvious to admirers like myself – that his work formed one enormous oeuvre, and that his attempts to probe the secrets of the mind were creating a total picture that was as exciting as – and in many ways more convincing – than the work of Freud and Jung. This was truly creative thinking on an awesome scale. I myself was disappointed that his explanation of phenomena such as possession leans so heavily towards scepticism; my own research into poltergeists had convinced me - reluctantly - that there are such things as spirits.
When he sent me a proof of Cities of Dreams, he told me that he was crossing his fingers this would finally make the impact he always hoped for. As I read the book, it seemed to me that this was highly likely – that this brilliant demonstration that Neanderthal man possessed as rich and complex a culture as Cro-Magnon, who replaced him, would excite widespread interest and controversy. In the event, he once more encountered the old problem: that his work was too original and wide-ranging for the academics, and too closely argued and serious for the general public. Yet that struck me as outrageously unfair since the book was so obviously a culmination of his work since Total Man.
I could see instantly that it had all started with that crouching figure in the corner of the seance room and that everything that Gooch had written since then was an exploration of the implications of what had happened to him at the age of 26.
When I wrote this article in 1995, six years after the first publication of Cities of Dreams, the intellectual climate was more receptive than ever before to his ideas. During the 1980s, John Anthony West, an expert on ancient Egypt, had become convinced that the Sphinx had been eroded by water, not by wind-driven sand, and in 1992, a Boston geologist, Dr Robert Schoch, supported his opinion, arguing that the Sphinx was probably built five thousand years earlier than modern scholars believed.
Subsequent evidence arising from the explorations into the astronomical alignments of the Great Pyramid complex by Robert Bauval have led West to put back the date to 10,500 BC (the widely accepted dating is 2,500 BC). In his bestseller Fingerprints of the Gods, Graham Hancock has argued that there is evidence for ancient civilisations dating back thousands of years before the accepted 'origin of civilisation' in the Middle East around 6,000 BC.
Charles Hapgood's Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings had long ago pointed out that mediaeval maps, called Portolans, must be based on far more ancient maps, and that one of these shows the continent of Antarctica as it was before it was covered in ice. Through radar soundings the bays shown in this map have since been discovered – under a mile of ice. Yet Antarctica has not been ice-free since at least 4,000 BC, and probably much earlier than that.
If there were civilisations that pre-dated Sumer and Egypt by more than ten thousand years, then Gooch's argument that Neanderthal man was a far more sophisticated creature than anyone has recognised also becomes far more plausible. In fact, the whole field has opened up, to an extent that even Stan Gooch could not have guessed in the mid 1980s. His work has never been more relevant and I must admit that I have drawn heavily upon The Neanderthal Question and Cities of Dreams for my book From Atlantis to the Sphinx (1996) which concerns this whole riddle of ancient civilisations and the mind of primitive man.
I am inclined to believe that Stan Gooch will only begin to be properly recognised when all his books from Total Man onward are available in a uniform cheap paperback edition. Then it will be clearly seen that his work represents one of the most impressive and exciting intellectual structures of the second half of the twentieth century. With luck, the updated version of Cities of Dreams (1995) will mark the beginning of that process.
Colin Wilson – Aulis Publishers, 1995
From: The Telegraph
Stan Gooch, who has died aged 78, began his career as a conventional academic and became a senior research fellow at the National Children's Bureau and the author of several works on child psychology; in 1958, however, he had an experience which sparked a parallel interest in the paranormal.
He was working as a schoolteacher in Coventry at the time, and was invited to a séance at the home of a friend. He decided to go out of curiosity but, as he sat facing the medium, experienced a sensation as if the room was full of wind then rushing water. Before long he passed out. When he came round, he was told that he had entered a trance, and that several "entities" had spoken through his mouth, including a cousin who had died in the war.
While Gooch continued with his mainstream academic career, he continued to attend séances and began to publish works which delved into the paranormal and ranged across a wider field of human psychological and social evolution. He came to believe that all supernatural phenomena and manifestations are internally generated by our own psyche and, in Total Man: An Evolutionary Theory of Personality (1972), expanded on Freud's classic distinction between rational "ego" and instinctive "id" to argue that this irrational, instinctive faculty, which he located in the cerebellum, must be the source of legends about vampires, troglodytes, demons and other imaginary creatures.
The book was received politely by critics; Jacquetta Hawkes chose it as her Book of the Year in a Christmas literary review, and Gooch went on to develop the idea that the cerebellum is responsible for dreaming, creativity and paranormal experience in The Double Helix of the Mind (1980), in which he took issue with the hemisphere model of the human brain proposed by scientists such as Roger Sperry, who won the 1981 Nobel Prize in Medicine.
If some scientists regarded Gooch with scepticism, their response when he attempted to extend his psychological theories into the field of human evolution was more dubious still. In The Paranormal (1978), Gooch recalled that during one of his séances those present became aware of an ape-like creature, resembling a caveman, crouched, trembling, in the corner of the room. Gooch came to suspect that he had seen a "Neanderthal". He began to reason that the two sides of the human psyche – the ego and the self – were inherited from different branches of the human evolutionary tree.
In works such as Personality and Evolution (1973), The Neanderthal Question (1977), Guardians of the Ancient Wisdom (1979) and later in Cities of Dreams (1989) and The Neanderthal Legacy (2008), Gooch advanced the theory that Neanderthal man was not exterminated by Cro-Magnon man but was "bred" out of separate existence by Cro-Magnon. Modern man, he claimed, is the result of this combination, with Cro-Magnon characteristics predominating, but with elements of the more spiritual and artistic Neanderthal culture as part of the mix.
Though the idea of interbreeding was dismissed by scientists at the time Gooch first published, there does appear to have been an element of truth in it. Earlier this year scientists at the Max Planck Institute announced that DNA evidence suggests that it may indeed have occurred, though the proportion of Neanderthal-inherited genetic material in modern man is only about one to four per cent.
Rather less convincing, however, was Gooch's claim that "political allegiance is a characteristic inherited along Mendelian lines", with socialists descending from our red-headed Neanderthal ancestors, and conservatives from our black-haired Cro-Magnon grandfathers. This idea prompted one reviewer to conclude, sardonically, that "if you transfer your allegiance to another political party, your genes are automatically adjusted to the change".
Stanley Albert Gooch was born into a working-class family in Lewisham, south London, on June 13 1932. His father held a minor job in the civil service after being disabled in the First World War. After their house was condemned as unfit for habitation, the family was moved to a public housing estate, and Gooch won a scholarship to Colfe's Grammar School, Lewisham. Subsequently, he took a degree in Modern Languages at King's College, London. He then spent a year in the scrap metal business before deciding to become a teacher.
Inspired by his growing interest in the paranormal, however, he took a degree in Psychology, studying in the evening at Birkbeck College, London University. After graduation he joined the National Children's Bureau, where he published papers and articles in psychology journals and magazines, and co-authored three important studies: Children's Judgement of Wickedness: A longitudinal pilot study (1966, with ML Kellmer-Pringle); Four Years On: a follow-up study at school leaving age of children formerly attending a traditional and a progressive junior school (1970, also with ML Kellmer-Pringle), and The Child With Asthma (1986, with Rosemary Dinnage). He also launched a national study of the employment of disabled school leavers.
Eventually Gooch resigned his post to pursue a full-time career as a writer. But his books did not sell particularly well, and by his seventies he was reported to be living alone in a rented caravan in Wales.
He held that Monday 13th was of psychic significance and he died on Monday September 13.
His marriage to Ruth Senior was dissolved.